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A&P Ch 22

Cardiovascular System: The Heart

To which side of the body does the apex of the heart point? To the left
What consists of inelastic dense irregular connective tissue? Fibrous pericardium
This layer of the heart wall consists of mesothelium and connective tissue. Epicardium
This is used to increase the capacity of the atrium Auricle
This marks the boundary between the ventricles. Anterior interventricular sulcus and posterior interventricular sulcus
As the right ventricle contracts where does blood move? Into the pulmonary trunk
In a fetus, this structure temporarily shunts blood from the pulmonary trunk into the aorta. Ductus arteriosus
Which valve prevents blood from flowing back into the right ventricle? Pulmonary valve
Cardiac muscle fibers electrically connect to neighboring fibers by which structures? Gap junctions
Atrial depolarization is marked by which wave? P wave
This is the mass of tissue from the sternum to the vertebral column between the lungs. Mediastinum
Through which structure does blood pass from the right atrium to the right ventricle? Tricuspid valve
From the left ventricle, where does blood pass? Aortic semilunar valve
This is a network of specialized cardiac muscle fibers that provide a path for each cycle of cardiac excitation to progress through the heart. Conduction system
Formula regarding stroke volume or SV SV equals end diastolic volume or EDV minus end systolic volume or ESV
This is the layer that surrounds and protects the heart. Pericardium
This is used to reduce the friction between membranes of the heart. Pericardial or serous fluid
Which layer of the heart wall consists of cardiac muscle tissue? Myocardium
How are cardiac muscle fibers connected? By thickenings of the plasma membrane, called intercalated discs
What is the function of the gap junctions within each intercalated disc? To allow action potentials to conduct from one cardiac muscle fiber to the next
Which vessel drains blood from the upper limbs and head into the heart? Superior vena cava
What heart structures carry deoxygenated blood? Right atrium and ventricle
As the left ventricle contracts where does blood move? Into the aorta
As each atrium contracts, where does blood move? Through an atrioventricular valve
In this disorder the aortic valve is narrowed. Aortic stenosis
These vessels distribute oxygenated blood to the myocardium. Coronary arteries
The sequence of structures that allows the normal sequence of excitation to progress through the heart. Sinoatrial node, Atrioventricular node, Bundle of His, Purkinje fibers
This electrical event represents repolarization of the ventricle. T wave
Which part of the heart can initiate a contraction? Sinoatrial node
This term refers to the period during a cardiac cycle when contraction occurs and blood pressure rises. Systole
The second heart sound represents which of the below events? Semilunar valves closing
This is the volume of blood ejected from the left ventricle into the aorta each minute. Cardiac output
Which of these periods represents greatest cardiac output? Ventricular systole
This part of the brain regulates heart rate. Medulla oblongata
Stimulation of which nerve reduces heart rate? Vagus nerve
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