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NEUROLOGICAL DISEASE

Fundamentals of Disease Processes

QuestionAnswer
NEUROLOGICAL DISEASES
Meningitis means: inflammation of the meninges.
Meninges are: protective membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord.
The most severe type of meningitis is caused by bacterial antigens such as: 1. Meningococci.
The most severe type of meningitis is caused by bacterial antigens such as: 2. Streptococci.
The most severe type of meningitis is caused by bacterial antigens such as: 3. Pneumococci.
Antigens are: pathogenic (disease creating) microorganisms.
Bacterial meningitis can be fatal which means: deadly.
Most recover completely from: meningitis.
Antigens (pathogenic microorganisms) usually migrate (move) to the meninges from other infection sites (locations) such as: 1. OM which stands for otitis media (middle ear inflammation).
Antigens (pathogenic microorganisms) usually migrate (move) to the meninges from other infection sites (locations) such as: 2. An URI which stands for upper respiratory infection.
Antigens (pathogenic microorganisms) usually migrate (move) to the meninges from other infection sites (locations) such as: 3. Inflammation of the mucous membranes lining the cranial (skull) cavities (spaces) called sinusitis.
Meningitis is a communicable (contagious) disease commonly affecting those with a compromised (weakened) immune system such as: children and young adults.
Meningitis is commonly transmitted by close contact such as: a. Coughing and/or sneezing.
Meningitis is commonly transmitted by close contact such as: b. Kissing.
Meningitis is commonly transmitted by close contact such as: c. Sharing drink containers.
Signs and symptoms of meningitis include: 1. Pyrexia (fever) greater than 104F called hyperthermia.
Signs and symptoms of meningitis include: 2. Severe headache (HA) called cephalgia.
Signs and symptoms of meningitis include: 3. Disorientation which means confusion.
Signs and symptoms of meningitis include: 4. Stiffness of the neck.
Signs and symptoms of meningitis include: 5. N+V which stands for nausea and vomiting.
Signs and symptoms of meningitis include: 6. Photophobia which means sensitivity to light.
Signs and symptoms of meningitis include: 7. Gran man seizures aka confulsions.
Diagnosis of meningitis is confirmed (proven) with a LP which stands for: lumbar puncture (LP) to obtain a sample of CSF which stands for cerebrospinal fluid.
A lumbar puncture (LP) is: aka a "spinal tap".
Treatment for meningitis includes: 1. Medications against fever (pyrexia) called antipyretics.
Treatment for meningitis includes: 2. Antibiotic therapy for bacterial infections.
Treatment for meningitis includes: 3. Intravenous (IV) therapy to prevent dehydration.
Meningitis means: inflammation of the meninges which are protective membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord.
Without treatment, meningitis can cause permanent brain damage such as: a. Blindness and anacusis which means no hearing (deafness).
Without treatment, meningitis can cause permanent brain damage such as: b. Loss of feeling and/or movement called paralysis.
Without treatment, meningitis can cause permanent brain damage such as: c. Decreased IQ (intelligence quotient) causing ID which stands for intellectual disability aka mental retardation (M).
Without treatment, meningitis can cause permanent brain damage such as: d. Abnormal accumulation (collection) of fluid in the brain called hydrocephalus.
Hydrocephalus cause an increased IP which stands for: intracranial pressure.
Immunizations ( vaccinations or innoculations) for meningococcal (bacterial) meningitis include: Menactra and Menomune.
Immunizations for pneumococcal (bacterial) meningitis include: Pneumovax 23 and Pnu-Immune 23.
Immunizations (inoculations) are antigens (disease creators) that have been: crippled (attenuated) or killed (inactivated).
ENCEPHALITIS
Encephalitis means: inflammation of the brain.
Encephalitis can be caused by: 1. A flu virus aka influenza.
Encephalitis can be caused by: 2. The HSV which stands for herpes simplex virus.
Encephalitis can be caused by: 3. Rubella aka measles.
Encephalitis can be caused by: 4. Parotitis aka mumps.
Encephalitis can be caused by: 5. Rubella aka German measles.
Encephalitis can be caused by: 6. Varicella aka chicken pox.
Inflammation of the brain can be caused by: 7. The WNV which stands for West Nile Virus and is abbreviated WNE which stands for West Nile Encephalitis.
The West Nile Virus (WNV) is transmitted (spread) by: mosquitos.
Signs and symptoms of encephalitis include: 1. Pyrexia (fever) greater than 104F called hyperthermia.
Signs and symptoms of encephalitis include: 2. Severe headache (HA) called cephalgia.
Signs and symptoms of encephalitis include: 3. Disorientation which means confusion.
Signs and symptoms of encephalitis include: 4. Stiffness of the neck.
Signs and symptoms of encephalitis include: 5. N+V which stands for nausea and vomiting.
Signs and symptoms of encephalitis include: 6. Photophobia which means sensitivity to light.
Signs and symptoms of encephalitis include: 7. Gran mal seizures aka convulsions.
70-80% of people with West Nile Virus (WNV) are: asymptomatic which means no symptoms.
Those at higher risk for encephalitis include: 1. Children.
Those at higher risk for encephalitis include: 2. Elderly.
Those at higher risk for encephalitis include: 3. Immunocompromised clients.
Diagnosis of encephalitis is confirmed (proven) with a LP which stands for: lumbar puncture (LP) (spinal tap) to obtain a sample of CSF which stands for cerebrospinal fluid.
Treatment for encephalitis includes: 1. Medications against fever called antipyretics.
Treatment for encephalitis includes: 2. Intravenous (I) therapy to prevent dehydration.
Treatment for encephalitis includes: 3. NSAIDS which stands for nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.
SHINGLES
Shingles is an acute (sudden) and chronic (persistent) incurable sensory neuritis which means: inflammation of peripheral nerves.
Shingles is aka HZ which stands for: herpes zoster.
Herpes Zoster (HZ) causes nerve pain abbreviated PHN which stands for: post-herpetic neuralgia.
Post-herpetic neuralgia (PHN) can last: from weeks to years.
Shingles (herpes zoster) is the: sequela (aftereffect) of an infection from VZV which stands for varicella zoster virus.
The primary (first) infection from the varicella zoster virus (VZV) causes: chicken pox.
Signs and symptoms of shingles (herpes zoster) include: 1. Painful erythematous unilateral vesicular (blisters) skin lesions which means red fluid filled papules on one side.
Signs and symptoms of shingles (herpes zoster) include: 2. Pruritis which means itching.
Signs and symptoms of shingles (herpes zoster) include: 3. Cicatrices which are scars.
Shingles (Herpes zoster) most commonly occurs (happens) in people over the age of: 50.
A vaccination that reduces the risk of shingles (herpes zoster) and recommended for those over age 50 who have had varicella zoster (chickenpox) is called: Shingrix.
Treatment for shingles includes: 1. Medications against the proliferation (rapid reproduction) of the varicella zoster virus (VZV) called antivirals.
Treatment for shingles includes: 2. Narcotic analgesics to relieve pain.
Activation of the dormant (inactive) varicella zoster virus (VZV) is associated with a compromised: immune system and poorly controlled stress.
TETANUS
Tetanus is an acute (sudden) infection of motor neurons caused the tetanus bacillus that lives in the: intestines of animals
Motor neurons are: nerve cells of movement.
Tetanus bacilli are found in: fecal material.
Tetanus bacilli can survive as spores (seeds) indefinitely: (40+ years) in the soil.
Wounds most susceptible (likely) to tetanus are: ragged lacerated (cut or torn) tissue contaminated with soil.
Tetanus bacilli produce a powerful toxin (poison) that circulates to the nerve cells of movement called: motor neurons.
Affected motor neurons can cause: 1. Muscle stiffness in the neck, back, shoulders and jaw hence the name "lockjaw".
Affected motor neurons can cause: 2. Painful muscle spasms which are involuntary contractions.
Affected motor neurons can cause: 3. Dyspnea which means difficult ventilation (breathing).
Affected motor neurons can cause: 4. Asphyxiation which means suffocation.
Tetanus has an incubation (latent) period of: 1-3 weeks.
Incubation (latent) period is: the time between infection and the appearance of signs and symptoms called manifestation.
Treatment for tetanus includes: 1. Thorough wound cleansing and removal of necrotic (dead) tissue and removal of FB( foreign bodies) called debridement.
Treatment for tetanus includes: 2. Administration (giving) of tetanus vaccine abbreviated TT which stands for tetanus toxoid.
Treatment for tetanus includes: 3. Administration (giving) of Tdap (DPT) tetanus diphtheria and pertussis.
Pertussis is aka: whooping cough.
EPILEPSY
Epilepsy is characterized (described) by chronic (persistent, recurring) abnormal electrical activity in the brain resulting in: seizures.
Causes of epilepsy include: 1. Heredity aka familial or genetic.
Causes of epilepsy include: 2. Pyrexia greater than 104F called hyperthermia.
Causes of epilepsy include: 3. TBI which stands for traumatic brain injury.
Causes of epilepsy include: 4. BT which stands for brain tumor.
Causes of epilepsy include: 5. A blood condition of excessive nitrogenous (N) waste called uremia or azotemia. Uremia (azotemia) shows RF which stands for renal failure.
Causes of epilepsy include: 6. Inflammation of the membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord called meningitis.
Causes of epilepsy include: 7. Inflammation of the brain called encephalitis.
Causes of epilepsy include: 8. Abuse of alcohol (ETOH) and/or drugs.
Causes of epilepsy include: 9. Eclampsia which refers to seizures associated with PIH which stands for pregnancy induced hypertension.
Seizures (Sz) that include convulsions are called: grand mal seizures.
Grand mal seizures (convulsions) include body stiffening called the tonic phase followed by: violent jerking called the clonic phase.
Grand mal seizures (convulsions) are also characterized by: 1. LOC which stands for loss of consciousness.
Grand mal seizures (convulsions) are also characterized by: 2. Biting of the lingua aka the tongue.
Grand mal seizures (convulsions) are also characterized by: 3. Hypersalivation which means excessive saliva production.
Grand mal seizures (convulsions) are also characterized by: 4. Enuresis which means loss of bladder control aka urinary incontinence.
Seizures (Sz) characterized (described) by a brief sudden amnesic (memory loss) lapse (failure) of awareness are called: petit mal seizures aka absence seizures.
Petit mal (absence) seizures (Sz) are characterized (described) by: 1. Loss of awareness for 10-30 seconds.
Petit mal (absence) seizures (Sz) are characterized (described) by: 2. Fluttering of the eyelids.`
Petit mal (absence) seizures (Sz) are characterized (described) by: 3. Lip smacking and chewing motions.
Petit mal (absence) seizures (Sz) are characterized (described) by: 4. Amnesia of the seizure which means no memory.
Petit mal seizures are more common in: children.
A premonition (forewarning) of an impending (about to happen) seizure is called an: aura.
Auras (premonitions or forewarnings) include: 1. A sudden sense of unprovoked (no cause) fear.
Auras (premonitions or forewarnings) include: 2. A deja vu experience which is a feeling that what's happening has happened before.
Auras (premonitions or forewarnings) include: 3. A sensation of a sudden or strange odor or taste.
The period of time after a seizure when the victim may experience disorientation (confusion) and somnolence (sleepiness) is called the: postictal state.
Diagnosis (Dx) of epilepsy is confirmed (proven) with an EEG which stands for: electroencephalogram. Electroencephalogram (EEG) means a record of the electrical activity in the brain.
Treatment (Tx) for epilepsy includes:
Epilepsy is: chronic abnormal electrical activity in the brain causing seizures aka a seizure disorder.
MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an idiopathic (unknown cause), genetic (familial) autoimmune (AI) chronic (persistent) progressive, degenerative (deterioration) disease of the: CNS which stands for central nervous system.
Multiple sclerosis is twice as likely to occur (happen) in: adult women.
The most common form of multiple sclerosis (MS) is abbreviated RRMS which stands for: relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis.
Relapsing means the signs and symptoms of a chronic disease: return.
Remitting means the signs and symptoms of a chronic (persistent) disease: abate or subside which means diminish (lessen) or disappear.
Signs and symptoms of multiple sclerosis (MS) include: 1. Ataxia which means no coordination.
Signs and symptoms of multiple sclerosis (MS) include: 2. Tingling and numbness in the extremities called paresthesia.
Signs and symptoms of multiple sclerosis (MS) include: 3. Involuntary (no control) rhythmic muscle movement called shaking tremors.
Signs and symptoms of multiple sclerosis (MS) include: 4. Involuntary (no control) rapid eyeball movements called nystagmus.
Signs and symptoms of multiple sclerosis (MS) include: 5. Diplopia which means double vision.
Signs and symptoms of multiple sclerosis (MS) include: 6. Loss of vision called blindness.
Signs and symptoms of multiple sclerosis (MS) include: 7. Progressive fatigue which means loss of energy.
Signs and symptoms of multiple sclerosis (MS) include: 8. Dysphasia which means difficulty speaking.
Signs and symptoms of multiple sclerosis (MS) include: 9. Enuresis which means loss of bladder control aka urinary incontinence.
Signs and symptoms of multiple sclerosis (MS) include: 10. Difficulty with memory, comprehension (understanding) and reasoning (judgement) called cognitive dysfunction.
Signs and symptoms of multiple sclerosis (MS) include: 11. Decreased libido which means sex drive.
Signs and symptoms of multiple sclerosis (MS) include: 12. ED which stands for erectile dysfunction.
Signs and symptoms of multiple sclerosis (MS) include: 13. MDD which stands for major depressive disorder aka clinical depression.
Treatment (Tx) for multiple sclerosis (MS) includes decreasing the severity of symptoms and preventing relapses with medications to reduce the body's protective (defensive) response called: immunosuppressants.
PARKINSON'S DISEASE
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive encephalopathy: usually occurring after age 60, affecting movement. Encephalopathy means disease condition of the brain.
Parkinson's disease is caused by deficient secretion of chemical neurotransmitter in the brain called: dopamine. Secretion means production and discharge (release).
Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by: 1. Hypomimia which means decreased facial expression aka mask-like facial expression.
Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by: 2. Involuntary (no control) shaking muscles called tremors (i.e. pill rolling).
Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by: 3. Hypertonia which means muscle rigidity (stiffness)
Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by: 4. Slobbering aka drooling.
Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by: 5. Bradykinesia which means slow movement.
Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by: 6. Walking with small step called a shuffling gait.
A common abbreviation associated with Parkinson's disease (PD) is SST which stands for: slowness (bradykinesia) stiffness (hypertonia). tremors. Tremors are involuntary (no control) shaking muscles.
Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by: 7. Monotone speech which means one tone.
Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by: 8. The head and shoulders habitually bent forward called a stooped posture.
Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by: 9. Dysphagia (difficulty swallowing) causing choking.
Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by: 10. Urinary incontinence which means loss of bladder control aka enuresis.
Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by: 11. Constipation which means difficult defecation.
Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by: 12. Loss of libido which means sex drive.
Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by: 13. ED which stands for erectile dysfunction.
Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by: 14. MDD which stands for major depressive disorder aka clinical depression.
ALZHEIMER'S DISEASE (AD)
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive degeneration (deterioration, degradation) of neurons (nerve cells) in the: brain.
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized (described) by: cognitive dysfunction which means difficulty with memory and/or comprehension (understanding) and/or reasoning (judgement).
Cognitive dysfunction that interferes with activities of daily living (ADL) is called: dementia.
Alzheimer's disease is also characterized by: behavioral (emotional changes).
Alzheimer's disease is associated with the build up of a protein in the brain called: beta amyloid plaque or beta amyloid tangles.
Warning signs of Alzheimer's disease (AD) include: 1. Difficulty remembering things that just happened.
Warning signs of Alzheimer's disease (AD) include: 2. Asking the same question or repeating the story over and over.
Warning signs of Alzheimer's disease (AD) include: 3. Forgetting how to perform activities that were previously done easily such as cooking and cleaning, making repairs, playing cards, paying bills or balancing a checkbook.
Warning signs of Alzheimer's disease (AD) include: 4. Neglecting to bathe or wearing the same clothes over and over again while insisting (demanding) that they have taken a bath or that their clothes are still clean.
Warning signs of Alzheimer's disease (AD) include: 5. Getting lost in familiar surroundings.
Warning signs of Alzheimer's disease (AD) include: 6. Relying on someone else, such as a spouse, to make decisions or answer questions they previously would have handled themselves.
Exacerbation( worsening) of Alzheimer's disease after dusk is called: sundowning.
Alzheimer's disease can cause: 1. MDD which stands for major depressive disorder aka clinical depression.
Alzheimer's disease can cause: 2. Irritability and aggressiveness.
Alzheimer's disease can cause: 3. False beliefs called delusion.
Alzheimer's disease is associated with the build up of protein in the brain called: beta amyloid plaque or beta amyloid tangles.
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is diagnosed by evaluating (assessing) the ability to remember and when other medical conditions possibly responsible are: ruled out. (R/O).
A person with Alzheimer's disease will eventually require (need) complete care.
The duration (length) of AD can be: 2-20 years.
Increased risk of Alzheimer's disease is associated with: 1. Being grossly (excessively) overweight called obesity.
Increased risk of Alzheimer's disease is associated with: 2. Chronic HTN which stands for persistent hypertension aka high blood pressure. (HBP).
Increased risk of Alzheimer's disease is associated with: 3. DM which stands for diabetes mellitus.
Alzheimer's disease is usually diagnosed after age 65 and every 5 years afterwards the incidence (occurrence): doubles.
Alzheimer's disease risk can be reduced by: a. Regular activity of the mind and body.
Alzheimer's disease risk can be reduced by: b. Eating foods that are nutritious (healthy).
CEREBRAL PALSY
Cerebral palsy (CP) refers to brain damage occurring (happening) during: gestation (pregnancy).
Causes of cerebral palsy (CP) include: 1. gestational rubella which means German measles infection during pregnancy.
Causes of cerebral palsy (CP) include: 2. Gestational hypoxia which means deficient oxygen during pregnancy.
Causes of cerebral palsy (CP) include: 3. An Rh incompatibility disease that can occur (happen) if the father is RH+ and the mother is Rh- abbreviated EF which stands for erythroblastosis fetalis (EF) aka HDN which stands for hemolytic disease of the newborn.
Cerebral palsy can also be idiopathic which means pertaining to a: disease of unknown cause.
CEREBRAL VASCULAR ACCIDENT (CVA)
A cerebral vascular accident (CVA) is aka a: "stroke".
A cerebral vascular accident (CVA) occurs when: blood flow to the cerebrum is interrupted (stopped).
Cerebral vascular accident (CVA) causes include: 1. A dissecting (tearing) cerebral artery aneurysm (arterial septal (wall weakness) with ICH which stands for intracerebral hemorrhagic stroke.
A cerebral aneurysm can be detected with cerebral angiography which means: process of recording (X-raying) the cerebral arteries.
Cerebral vascular accident (CVA) causes include: 2. A cerebral artery infarction (occlusion or obstruction) resulting in a starvation of oxygen (O2) aka an ischemic stroke.
Signs and symptoms of a cerebral vascular accident include: 1. Blurred vision and/or diplopia which means double vision.
Signs and symptoms of a cerebral vascular accident include: 2. Ataxia which means no coordination.
Signs and symptoms of a cerebral vascular accident include: 3. Vertigo which means dizziness.
Signs and symptoms of a cerebral vascular accident include: 4. LOC which stands for loss of consciousness.
Signs and symptoms of a cerebral vascular accident include: 5. Facial drooping which means sagging of the face.
Signs and symptoms of a cerebral vascular accident include: 6. Hemiparesis which means partial paralysis (palsy) of one half side of the body.
Signs and symptoms of a cerebral vascular accident include: 7. Hemiplegia which means total paralysis (palsy) of one half side of the body.
Signs and symptoms of a cerebral vascular accident include: 8. Dysphasia which means difficulty speaking.
FAST is a medical abbreviation to describe: a. Facial drooping.
FAST is a medical abbreviation to describe: b. Arm weakness (paralysis).
FAST is a medical abbreviation to describe: c. Speech difficulties (dysphasia).
FAST is a medical abbreviation to describe: d. Time (since signs and symptoms began).
Diagnosis (DX) of a cerebral vascular accident (CVA) is confirmed (proven) with a: brain CT which stands for computerized tomography.
A CVA occurs when blood flow to the cerebrum is: interrupted (stopped).
Risk factors for a cerebral vascular accident (CVA) include an: 1. Abnormal condition of hardening of the arteries caused by fatty plaque called atherosclerosis.
Risk factors for a cerebral vascular accident (CVA) include an: 2. Chronic HTN which stands for persistent hypertension aka high blood pressure (HBP).
Risk factors for a cerebral vascular accident (CVA) include an: 3. An arrhythmia (dysrhythmia) associated with thrombus (clot) formation abbreviated A-fib which stands for atrial fibrillation.
Treatment for a cerebral vascular accident includes: a. A diet low in harmful lipids called saturated fats.
Treatment for a cerebral vascular accident includes: b. Medications against excessive fat in the blood called antihyperlipidemics.
Treatment for a cerebral vascular accident includes: c. A diet low in Na which stands for sodium.
Treatment for a cerebral vascular accident includes: d. Medications against high blood pressure (HTN) called antihypertensives.
Treatment for a cerebral vascular accident includes: e. Medications against dysrhythmias called antiarrhythmics.
Cerebral vascular accidents (CVA) are more common after age: 55.
The risk of a CVA doubles for: African-Americans.
Treatment for a cerebral vascular accident (CVA) resulting from an infarction includes: medications to break up thrombi (clots) called thrombolytics (clot busters)
Thrombolytic (clot buster) therapy is effective for a cerebral artery infarction (occlusion) if administered (given): within three hours of the onset (beginning) of symptoms.
Necrotic (dead) cerebral tissue: will not regenerate (repair).
Rehabilitation (Rehab) for a cerebral vascular accident includes: teaching non-damaged parts of the cerebrum to perform the duties of the necrotic (dead) cerebral tissue.
TRANSIENT ISCHEMIC ATTACK (TIA)
A transient ischemic attack (TIA) is aka a: mini-stroke.
A transient ischemic attack (TIA) occurs when: starvation of oxygenated blood to the brain is temporary.
The signs and symptoms of a TIA are the same as a cerebral vascular accident except they are: temporary.
Causes of a transient (temporary) ischemic attack (TIA) include: 1. Carotid atherosclerosis which means hardening of the carotid arteries caused by fatty plaque.
Causes of a transient (temporary) ischemic attack (TIA) include: 2. Microemboli which are small travelling clots.
Treatment of a transient ischemic attack includes: prophylactic (preventative) medication against thrombus (clot) formation called anticoagulants aka blood thinners.
CEREBRAL CONCUSSION
A cerebral concussion (CC) is a: transient brain disorder resulting from a TBI which stands for traumatic brain injury.
Signs and symptoms of a cerebral concussion include: 1. LOC which stands for loss of consciousness.
Signs and symptoms of a cerebral concussion include: 2. Cephalgia which means headache (HA).
Signs and symptoms of a cerebral concussion include: 3. Lethargy which means mental sluggishness.
Signs and symptoms of a cerebral concussion include: 4. Vertigo which means dizziness.
Signs and symptoms of a cerebral concussion include: 5. Disorientation which means confusion.
Signs and symptoms of a cerebral concussion include: 6. Post-traumatic amnesia (PTA) which means memory loss.
Signs and symptoms of a cerebral concussion include: 7. Tinnitus which means ringing (buzzing) in the ears.
Signs and symptoms of a cerebral concussion include: 8. Perseveration which refers to a behavior that repeats.
Repeated cerebral concussions (CCs) can result in: dementia-like symptoms years later called CTE which stands for chronic traumatic encephalopathy.
A cerebral concussion (CC) is a transient (temporary) brain disorder resulting from a TBI which stands for: traumatic brain injury.
A history of three or more cerebral concussions is associated with: adverse (undesirable) effects that can linger (remain)
Cerebral concussion (CC) monitoring protocol (protocol) includes q2h which stands for: every 2 hour neurological vital signs aka neuro checks.
Neurological vital signs (neuro checks) include: 1. Assessment (evaluation) of an ALC which stands for altered level of consciousness.
Levels of consciousness (LOC) refer to: a. The optimal (best) level called alert.
Levels of consciousness (LOC) refer to: b. Mental sluggishness called lethargy (lethargic).
Levels of consciousness (LOC) refer to: d. Unconsciousness (asleep) abbreviated LOC which stands for loss of consciousness.
Levels of consciousness (LOC) refer to: e. Unconsciousness (LOD) without response to stimuli (environmental changes) called coma.
Neurological vital signs (NVS) (neuro checks) include: 2. Assessment (evaluation) of orientation (understanding) to the 3 spheres which includes:
Neurological vital signs (NVS) (neuro checks) include: a. Person (recognizing people).
Neurological vital signs (NVS) (neuro checks) include: b. Place (knowing where you are).
Neurological vital signs (NVS) (neuro checks) include: c. Time (knowing the day and month).
Neurological vital signs (NVS) (neuro checks) include: 3. Assessment (evaluation) of PERRLA which stands for pupils equal, round, react to light and accommodation (ability to focus).
Neurological vital signs (NVS) (neuro checks) include: 4. Assessment (evaluation) of gait which refers to a person's coordination when walking.
CEREBRAL CONTUSION
Cerebral contusion means: intracranial hemorrhage resulting from a TBI which stands for traumatic brain injury.
Complications associated with a cerebral contusion include: 1. Increased ICP intracranial pressure.
Complications associated with a cerebral contusion include: 2. Unconsciousness (asleep without response to stimuli (environmental changes) called coma.
Complications associated with a cerebral contusion include: 3. Permanent BD which stands for brain damage.
Cerebral (intracranial) hemorrhages include: 1. A mass (collection) of blood above the dura mater (outer meninx) called an epidural hematoma.
Cerebral (intracranial) hemorrhages include: 2. A mass (collection) of blood below (under) the dura mater (outer meninx) called a subdural hematoma.
Cerebral (intracranial) hemorrhages include: 3. A mass (collection) of blood below (under) the arachnoid mater (middle meninx) called a subarachnoid hematoma.
Treatment (Tx) for a cerebral (intracranial) hemorrhage includes: 1. Drilling a hole in the cranium (skull) to relieve (reduce) increased ICP (intracranial pressure) called a burr hole.
Treatment (Tx) for a cerebral (intracranial) hemorrhage includes: 2. Surgical incision of the skull to evacuate (remove) the hematoma and seal the bleeding vessel(s) called a craniotomy.
BRAIN TUMOR (BT)
A primary malignant (metastatic) brain tumor (BT) is called a: glioma.
Primary means the tumor originated (began) in the: brain.
Most brain tumors (BTs): metastasize (spread) from other sites (locations).
Signs and symptoms of a brain tumor (BT) include: 1. Ataxia which means no coordination.
Signs and symptoms of a brain tumor (BT) include: 2. Severe cephalgia (headache) especially when bending over.
Signs and symptoms of a brain tumor (BT) include: 3. Personality changes and/or difficulty with memory and/or comprehension (understanding) and/or reasoning (judgement) called cognitive dysfunction.
Signs and symptoms of a brain tumor (BT) include: 4. Diplopia which means double vision.
Signs and symptoms of a brain tumor (BT) include: 5. Dysphasia which means difficulty speaking.
Signs and symptoms of a brain tumor (BT) include: 6. Grand mal seizures characterized (described) by tonic-clonic movements aka convulsions.
Although benign brain tumors are commonly removed surgically, malignant (metastatic) brain tumors are usually: inoperable which means unsuitable for surgery.
Treatment for a malignant brain tumor includes: 1. Chemotherapy aka antineoplastic medications.
Treatment for a malignant brain tumor includes: 2. Beams of intense energy called radiation therapy.
MIGRAINES
A migraine is a severe chronic (recurring) usually temporal: cephalgia (headache).
A migraine headache (HA) commonly lasts: from 4 hours to 3 days.
A migraine headache is commonly accompanied (partnered) with: 1. Photophobia which means sensitivity to light.
A migraine headache is commonly accompanied (partnered) with: 2. Hyperacusis which means sensitivity to sound.
A migraine headache is commonly accompanied (partnered) with: 3. N + V which stands for nausea and vomiting.
Migraine headaches are commonly: idiopathic which means disease of unknown cause.
Migraine headaches are more common in: women.
Migraine headaches can be: hereditary aka familial or genetic.
Migraine headache (HA) triggers include: 1. Poorly controlled stress.
Migraine headache (HA) triggers include: 2. Food preservatives such as nitrates and MSG found in hot dogs, luncheon meats and pepperoni.
Migraine headache (HA) triggers include: 3. Barometric pressure variations associated with the weather changes.
Migraine headache (HA) triggers include: 4. Changes in normal sleep patterns.
Migraine headache (HA) triggers include: 5. Skipping meals causing hypoglycemia which means blood condition of deficient sugar.
Migraine headache (HA) triggers include: 6. Consuming or withdrawing from caffeine.
Migraine headache (HA) triggers include: 7. Hormonal fluctuations associated with the cyclic sloughing (shedding) of the endometrium (uterine inner lining) called menstruation (menses).
Treatment for migraine headaches (HA) include: 1. Over the counter (OTC) pain relievers called non-narcotic analgesics.
Treatment for migraine headaches (HA) include: 2. Prescription pain relievers called narcotic analgesics.
Created by: bterrelonge