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med term ch 11

ch 11

adenoids lymphatic tissue forming a prominence on the wall of the recess of the nasopharynx
alveoli air cells of the lungs; known as the pulmonary parenchyma(functional units of the lungs)
apex of lung the upper portion of the lung,rising about 2.5 to 5 cm above the collarbone
base of lung the lowest part of the lung,resting on the diaphragm
bronchi the two main branches leading from the trachea to the lungs, providing the passageway for air movement
glottis the sound-producing apparatus of the larynx consisting of the two vocal folds and the intervening space(the epiglottis protects this opening)
epiglottis a thin leaf shaped structure located immediately posterior to the root of the tongue;covers the entrance of the larynx when the individual swallows
diaphragm the musculomembranous wall separating the abdomen from the thoracic cavity
capillaries any of the minute (tiny) blood vessels. the capillaries connect the ends of the smallest arteries (arterioles) with the beginnings of the smallest veins(venules)
bronchiole one of the smaller subdivisions of the bronchial tubes
visceral pleura portion of the pleura that is closet to the internal organs
trachea a cylinder shaped tube lined with rings of cartilage (to keep it open) that is 4.5 inches long,from the larynx to the bronchial tubes;the windpipe
thorax the chest; that part of the body between the base of the neck and the diaphragm
septum a wall dividing two cavities
pulmonary parencyhma the functional units of the lungs (for example, the alveoli)which have very thin walls that allow for the exchange of gases between the lungs and the blood
pleural space the space that separates the visceral and parietal pleurae,which contains a small amount of fluid that acts as a lubricant to the pleural surfaces during respiration
pleura the double-folded membrane that lines the thoracic cavity
laryngalgia pain in the larynx
phrenic nerve the nerve known as the motor nerve to the diaphragm
pharynx passageway for air from nasal cavity to larynx and food from mouth to esophagus. serves both the respiratory and digestive systems;the throat
parietal pleura portion of the pleura that is closet to the ribs
paranasal sinuses hollow areas or cavities within the skull that communicate with the nasal cavity
palatine tonsils lymphatic tissue located in the depression of the mucous membrane of fauces(the constricted opening leading from the mouth and the oral pharynx)and the pharynx
oropharynx central portion of the pharynx lying between the soft plate and upper portion of the epiglottis
nares external nostrils
nasopharnyx part of the pharynx located above the soft palate (postnasal space)
mediastinum the mass of organs and tissues separating the lungs. it contains the heart,aorta,trachea,esophagus and bronchi
larynx the enlarged upper end of the trachea below the root of the tongue; the voice box
laryngopharunx lower portion of the pharynx that extends from the vestibule of larynx(the portion just above the vocal cords)to the lowermost cartilage of the larynx
apena is a temporary cessation of breathing "without breathing)
cough a forceful and sometimes violent expiratory effort preceded by a preliminary inspiration.
bradypnea abnormally slow breathing
rhinorrhea is thin,watery discharge from the nose
rales an abnormal sound heard on auscultation of the chest, produced by passage of air through bronchi that contain secretion or exudate or that are constricted by spasm or a thickening of their walls;also known as crackle
pleural rub friction rub caused by inflammation of the pleural space
orthopnea respiratory condition in which there is discomfort in breathing in any but erect,sitting or standing position
kussmaul respirations are a very deep, gasping type of respiration associated with severe diabetic acidosis
hypoxia deficiency of oxygen
hypoemia insufficient oxygenation of aterial blood
hypercapnia increased amount of carbon dioxide in the blood
hemoptysis is expectoration of blood arising from the oral cavity,larynx,trachea,bronchi, or lungs
expectoration the act of spitting out saliva or coughing up materials from the air passageways leading to the lungs
epistaxia hemorrhage from the nose;nosebleed
dyspnea air hunger resulting in labored or difficult breathing,sometimes accompanied by pain
dysphonia difficulty in speaking;hoarseness
cyanosis slightly bluish, grayish, slatelike or dark discoloration of the skin due to presence of abnormal amounts of reduced hemoglobin in the blood
wheeze a whistling sound or sighing sound resulting from narrowing of the lumen of a respiratory passageway
tachypnea abnormal reapidity of breathing
stridor harsh sound during respiration;high pitched and resembling the blowing of wind,due to obstruction of air passageways
sneeze to expel air forcibly through the nose and mouth by spasmodic contraction of muscles of expiration due to irritation of nasal mucosa
rhonchi rales of rattlings in the throat,especially when it resembles snoring
pertussis an acute upper respiratory infectious disease,caused by the bacterium Bordetella pertussis "whooping cough"
laryngitis inflammation of the larynx,usually resulting in dysphonia (hoarseness) cough and difficulty swallowing
coryza is inflammation of the respiratory mucous known as rhinitison the common cold. the term common cold is usually used when referring to symptoms of an upper respiratory tract infection
croup a childhood disease characterized by a breaking cough, hoaresness, tracypnea, inspiratory, stridor and laryngeal spasm
diphteria serious infectious disease affecting the nose, pharynx or larynx-usually resulting in sore throat,dysphonia and fever.the disease is caused by the bacterium corynebacterium diphtheriar,which forms a white coating over the affected airways as it multiplies
bronchitis inflammation of the mucous membrane of the bronchial tube. infection is often preceded by the common cold
bronchiectasis chronic dilatation of a bronchus or bronchi with secondary infection that usually involves the lower portion of the lung
asthma paroxysmal dyspnea accompanied by wheezing caused by a spasm of the bronchial tubes or by swelling of their mucous membrane
tonsilltis inflammation of the palatine tonsils located in the area of the oropharynx
sinsusitis inflammation of a sinus, especially a paranasl sinus
rhinitis inflammation of the mucous membranes of the nose,usually resulting in obstruction of the nasal passages,rhinorreha,sneezing and facial pressure or pain,also knon as coryza
pharyngitis inflammation of the pharynx,usually resulting in sore throat
pleuritis(pleurisy) inflammation of both the visceral and parietal pleura
bronchogenic carcinoma a malignant lung tumor that originates in the bronchi;lung cancer
pleural effusion accumulation of fluid in the pleural space, resulting in compression of the lung,with resultant dyspnea
lung abscess a localized collection of pus formed by the destruction of lung tissue and microorganisms by white blood cells that have migrated to the area to fight infection
influenza a highly contagious viral infection of the respiratory tract transmitted by airborne droplet infection;also known as the flu
emphysema a chronic pulmonary disease characterized by increase beyond the normal in the size of air spaces distal to the terminal bronchiole,either from dilation of the alveoli or from destruction of their walls
empyema pus in a body cavity, especially in the pleural cavity(pyothoraz);usually the result of a primary infection on the lungs
hyaline membrane disease also known as respiratory disease syndrome (RDS) of the premature infant;is a severe impairment of the function of respiration in the premature newborn
hyaline membrane disease this condition is rarely present in a newborn of greater than 37 weeks gestation or in one wighing at least 5 pounds
pneumonia inflammation of the lungs caused primarily by bacteria,viruses and chemical irritants
pneumothorax a collection of air or gas in the pleural cavity. the air enters as the result of a perforation through the chest wall or the pleura covering the lung,causing the lung to collapse
pulmonary edema swelling of the lungs caused by an abnormal accumulation of fluid in the lungs,either in the alveoli of the interstitial spaces
pulmonary embolism the obstruction of one or more pulmonary arteries by a thrombus(clot)that dislodges from another is carried through the venous system to the vessels of the lung
pulmonary heart disease (cor pulmonale) is hypertrophy of the right ventricle of the heart (with or without failure)resulting from disorders of the lungs,or chest wall;heart failure resulting from pulmonary disease
sudden infant death syndrome the completely unexpected and unexpected death of an apparently well,or virtually well,infant. SIDS also known as crib death,is the most common cause of death between the 2 week and 1 year of life
bronchoscopy is the examination of the interior of the bronchi using a lighted, flexible tube known as a bronchoscope or endoscope
silicosis is a lung disease resulting from inhalation of silica (quartz)dust,characterized by formation of small nodules
byssinosis a lung disease resulting from inhalation of cotton,flex,and hemp;also known as brown lung disease
asbestosis is a lung disease resulting from inhalation of asbestos particles
anthracosis is the accumulation of carbon deposits in the lungs due to breathing smoke or coal dust (black lung disease);also called coal worker's pneumoconisosis
tuberculosis an infectious disease caused by the tubercle bacillus Mycobacterium tuberculosis & characterized by inflammatory infiltartions,formation of tubercles & caseous(chesselike)necrosis in the tissues of the lungs-other organs may be infected
chest x-ray the use of high-energy electromagnetic waves passing through the body onto a photographic film,to produce a picture of the internal structures of the body for diagnosis and therapy
larynogoscopy is the examination of the interior of the larynx using a lighted,flexible tube known as a larynngoscope or endoscope
tonsillectomy surgical removal of the palatine tonsils
thoraentesis involves the use of a needle to collect pleural fluid for laboratory analysis,or to remove excess pleural fluid or air from the pleural space
sputum specimen a specimen of material expectorated from the mouth. it produced after a cough it may contain (in addition to saliva) material from the throat and bronchi
pulmonary function tests physicians use this variety of tests to assess respiratory function
lung scan the visual imaging of the distribution of ventilation or blood flow in the lungs by scanning the lungs after the patient has been injected with or has inhaled radioactive material
tuberculin skin test (TST) is used to determine past or present tuberculosis infection present in the body. this is based on a positive skin reaction to the introduction of a purified protein derivative (ppd)of the tubercle bacilli called tuberculin into the skin
Created by: Courtneey