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Chap. 6

Chap. 6 Vocab

backward reconstruction a technique used to track sound shifts and consonants "backwards" toward the original language
conquest theory when a person or a group of people take control of an area and make everyone in that area follow their rules and beliefs//major theory of how Proto-Indo-European diffused into Europe
deep reconstruction technique using the vocabulary of an extinct language to re-create the language that proceeded the extinct language
dialects land or regional characteristics of a language
dispersal hypothesis hypothesis that the Indo-European languages that arose from Proto-Indo-European were first carried eastward into Southwest Asia, next around the Caspian Sea, and then across the Russian-Ukrainian plains and on into the Balkans
Germanic languages languages that reflect the movement of people from Northern Europe to west and south
global language the language used most commonly around the world
isogloss a line on a dialect map marking the boundary between linguistic features
language a set/combination of sounds and symbols used for communication
language convergence when two languages resemble each other because of interactions between the people/groups
language divergence when one language breaks into two smaller dialects because there's a constant lack of spatial interaction between original speakers *suggested by German linguist August Schleicher*
language families group of languages with a shared but fairly distant origin
lingua franca a language used among speakers of different languages for the purpose of trade and commerce
monolingual states countries in which only one language is spoken
multilingual states countries in which more than one language is spoken
mutual intelligibility the ability of two people to understand each other when speaking
nostratic language believed to be the ancestral language not only of Proto-Indo-European, but also of the Kartvelian languages of the southern Caucasus region, the Uralic-Altaic languages, the Dravadian languages of India, and the Afro-Asiatic language family
official language the language selected to promote cohesion between people of multilingual countries (usually the language of the courts and government)
pidgin language a simplified means of communication that develops between two or more groups that do not have a language in common
Proto-Indo-European the linguistic reconstruction of the ancient common ancestor of the Indo-European languages, the most widely spoken language family in the world
Romance languages languages that lie in the areas that were once controlled by the Roman Empire but were not completely overwhelmed ex: French, Spanish, Romanian, Portuguese, etc.
Slavic languages languages that developed as Slavic people migrated from a base in present-day Ukraine ex: Russian, Polish, Czech, Slovak, Ukrainian, Bulgarian, etc.
sound shift a systematic change in the pronunciation of a set of speech sounds as a language evolves
standard language the variant of a language that a country's political and intellectual elite seek to promote as the norm for use in schools, media, gov, and other aspects of public life ex: North American, Australian, and Indian English
subfamilies divisions within a language family where the commonalities are more definite and the origin is more recent
Created by: a.bby
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