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MUSCULAR DISEASES

Fundamentals of Disease Processes

QuestionAnswer
MUSCULAR DISEASES
Muscular dystrophy (MD) is a: group of more than 30 hereditary (familial) diseases causing muscle degeneration which means deterioration
The most common and serious form of muscular dystrophy is called: Duchenne.
MD can occur at any age and is more common in: males.
Some types of muscular dystrophy (MD) allow a normal life span while other types: cause death during the late teens to early 20s.
Diagnosis of muscular dystrophy is confirmed with: 1. EMG which stands for electromyography.
Diagnosis of muscular dystrophy is confirmed with: 2. Analysis (examination) of a tissue specimen (sample) called a muscle biopsy.
Treatment for muscular dystrophy includes: 1. Physical therapy to slow muscle degeneration (deterioration) and prevent permanent muscle shortening called contractures.
Treatment for muscular dystrophy includes: 2. Orthopedic assistance devices such as braces and/or crutches and/or wheelchairs.
MYASTHENIA GRAVIS (MG)
Myasthenia gravis (MG) is a progressive AI (autoimmune) neuromuscular disorder that causes: muscle weakness.
Myasthenia gravis is caused by abnormal antibody (immune protein) production by the: thymus.
This abnormal immune response interrupts the transmission (sending) of nerve impulses to the: muscles.
Sign and symptoms of myasthenia gravis (MG) include: 1. Blepharoptosis which means prolapse (drooping or sagging) eyelids.
Sign and symptoms of myasthenia gravis (MG) include: 2. Diplopia which means double vision.
Sign and symptoms of myasthenia gravis (MG) include: 3. Difficult mastication which means problem with chewing.
Sign and symptoms of myasthenia gravis (MG) include: 4. Dysphagia which means difficult swallowing.
Sign and symptoms of myasthenia gravis (MG) include: 5. Dysphonia which means difficult speaking.
Sign and symptoms of myasthenia gravis (MG) include: 6. Dyspnea which means difficult breathing.
Treatment for myasthenia gravis includes: a. Removal of the abnormal antibodies from the liquid part of the blood called plasmapheresis.
Treatment for myasthenia gravis includes: b. Medications to reduce the body's protective (defensive) response called immunosuppressants.
Treatment for myasthenia gravis includes: c. Thymectomy which means surgical removal of the thymus.
SKELETAL DISEASES
Osteomyelitis means: inflammation of bone and bone marrow.
Osteomyelitis is commonly caused by a: bacteria called staph aka staphylococcus aureus.
Osteomyelitis is common complication of an: open fracture (FX) aka a compound fracture (FX).
Signs and symptoms of osteomyelitis include: 1. Pain and erythema which means redness.
Signs and symptoms of osteomyelitis include: 2. Pyrexia (fever) which is an elevated oral body temperature greater than 100F.
Signs and symptoms of osteomyelitis include: 3. Edema which means swelling.
Signs and symptoms of osteomyelitis include: 4. Leukocytosis which means abnormal condition of excessive white blood cells (WBCs).
A complication of osteomyelitis is: bone necrosis (death) called sequestrum.
A very effective treatment (Tx) for osteomyelitis caused by staphylococcus aureus was penicillin (PCN) until the appearance of: MRSA which stands for methicillin resistant staphylococcus aureus.
RICKETS
Rickets is a childhood deficiency of BMD which stands for: bone marrow density (compactness), (strength) .
Rickets result from a deficiency of: 1. Ca which stands for calcium.
Rickets result from a deficiency of: 2. Calcitriol aka Vitamin D.
Calcitriol is necessary for the small intestine to absorb (take in): Ca which stands for calcium.
Signs and symptoms of rickets include: 1. Bone softening abbreviated OM which stands for osteomalacia.
Signs and symptoms of rickets include: 2. Easy (FX) which stands for fracture(s) aka broken bone(s).
Signs and symptoms of rickets include: 3. Bone deformities of the legs such as bow leggedness or knock-kneed.
Signs and symptoms of rickets include: 4. Muscular flaccidity which means decreased muscle tone.
Signs and symptoms of rickets include: 5. Delayed tooth eruption (appearance) called teething.
Signs and symptoms of rickets include: 6. Distention of the abdomen is called pot belly.
Rickets can be a compilation of the small intestine's inability to take in fat condition called malabsorption syndrome.
The small intestine's inability to take in fat results in: malabsorption of the four (4) fat soluble vitamins named A, D, E, and K.
Vitamin D is necessary for the small intestine to absorb (take in) Ca which stands for: calcium. Vitamin D is calcitriol.
RDA stands for: recommended dietary allowance.
Treatment and prophylaxis (preventative) for rickets includes: RDA administration of calcium (Ca) and calcitriol (Vitamin D)
The richest food source of calcium and calcitriol is: dairy. Dairy includes a. Milk. b. cheese. c. yogurt. d. cottage cheese. e. ice cream.
OSTEOMALACIA (OM)
Osteomalacia means: bone softening.
Osteomalacia is an adulthood deficiency of BMD which stands for: bone mineral density (compactness, strength).
Osteomalacia results from a deficiency of: 1. Ca which stands for calcium.
Osteomalacia results from a deficiency of: 2. Calcitriol aka Vitamin D.
Osteomalacia (OM) causes: bone deformities and easy fractures (broken bones).
Bones commonly affected by Osteomalacia (OM) include the: 1. Vertebrae aka the spinal column or back bones.
Bones commonly affected by Osteomalacia (OM) include the: 2. Hip bones aka the pelvis.
Bones commonly affected by Osteomalacia (OM) include the: 3. Long bones of the legs such as the femurs (thigh bones) or tibiae (shin bones) or fibulae (posterior bones of inferior legs).
Osteomalacia (OM) can be a complication of the small intestine's: inability to take in fat condition called malabsorption syndrome.
The small intestine's inability to take in fat results in: malabsorption of the four fat soluble vitamins named A, D, E and K.
Vitamin D is necessary for the small intestine to absorb Ca which stands for: calcium. Vitamin D is aka calcitriol.
Vitamin D deficiency increases the risk of: 1. URIs which stands for upper respiratory infections.
Vitamin D deficiency increases the risk of: 2. CVD which stands for cardiovascular disease.
Vitamin D deficiency increases the risk of: 3. Hyperlipidemia which means blood condition of excessive fat.
Vitamin D (calcitriol) deficiency increases the risk of: 4. HTN which stands for hypertension (HBP).
Vitamin D (calcitriol) deficiency increases the risk of: 5. CAD which stands for coronary artery disease.
Vitamin D (calcitriol) deficiency increases the risk of: 6. PAD which stands for peripheral arterial disease.
Vitamin D (calcitriol) deficiency increases the risk of: 7. CHF which stands for congestive heart failure.
Vitamin D (calcitriol) deficiency increases the risk of: 8. CVA which stands for cerebral vascular accident.
Vitamin D (calcitriol) deficiency increases the risk of: 9. MS which stands for multiple sclerosis.
Vitamin D (calcitriol) deficiency increases the risk of: 10. MDD which stands for major depressive disorder.
Vitamin D (calcitriol) deficiency increases the risk of: 11. TB which stands for tuberculosis.
Vitamin D (calcitriol) deficiency increases the risk of: 12. NIDDM which stands for non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus.
Vitamin D (calcitriol) deficiency increases the risk of: 13. OSA which stands for obstructive sleep apnea.
Vitamin D (calcitriol) deficiency increases the risk of: 14. ED which stands for erectile dysfunction aka impotence.
Causes of Vitamin D (calcitriol) deficiency include: decreased outdoor activity and decreased dairy (milk) intake.
OSTEITIS FIBROSA CYSTICA (OFC)
Osteitis fibrosa cystica (OFC) usually results from hyperparathyroidism that causes: excessive secretion of PTH which stands for parathyroid hormone.
Excessive secretion of parathyroid hormone (PTH) stimulates the bones to release calcium into the blood resulting in: hypercalcemia which means blood condition of excessive calcium.
Complications associated with OFC inclue: 1. Nephrolithiasis which means abnormal condition of kidney stones (renal calculi).
Complications associated with OFC inclue: 2. Spontaneous fractures which means bones break without trauma (injury).
Treatment for OFC includes: parathyroidectomy which means surgical removal (excision) of the parathyroid glands.
OSTEOPOROSIS (OP)
Osteoporosis (OP) is characterized by a loss of BMD which stands for: bone mineral density.
Osteoporosis is caused by ostopenia which means: deficiency of bone.
Osteoporosis means: holey (porous) bones.
Risk factors for osteoporosis (OP) include: 1. Familial history which means genetic (hereditary) history.
Risk factors for osteoporosis (OP) include: 2. Being the gender female.
Risk factors for osteoporosis (OP) include: 3. The races Asian and Caucasian.
Risk factors for osteoporosis (OP) include: 4. A body frame that is thin or small.
Risk factors for osteoporosis (OP) include: 5. Deficient calcitriol (Vitamin D) and/or hypocalcemia which means blood condition of deficient calcium (Ca).
Risk factors for osteoporosis (OP) include: 6. Disease atrophy which means loss of BMD from little or no regular exercise called a sedentary lifestyle.
Risk factors for osteoporosis (OP) include: 7. Inhaling burnt tobacco called smoking.
Smoking decreases the: absorption (taking in) of calcium (Ca).
Smoking decreases the: 8. Consuming ETOH which stands for ethanol (alcohol).
Smoking decreases the: 9. Estrogen deficiency associated with menopause.
Smoking decreases the: 10. Long term use of SAIDS which stands for steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.
Smoking decreases the: 11. Medications to treat PUD and GERD which stand for peptic ulcer disease and gastroesophageal reflux disease.
Smoking decreases the: 12. Hyperthyroidism abbreviated GD which stands for Grave's disease.
Osteoporosis risk also depends on the BMD acquired (gotten) between ages: 25 to 35.
Osteoporosis results in a predisposition (tendency) for a: fracture of the carpals aka wrist bones.
Osteoporosis results in a predisposition for a fracture of the: radii and ulnae which are the bones of the inferior (lower) arms.
Osteoporosis results in a predisposition for a fracture of the hip bones located in the: pelvis.
Osteoporosis results in a predisposition for a fracture of the vertebrae aka: back bones or spinal column.
Osteoporosis can result in a forward curvature of the vertebrae called: kyphosis aka hunchback.
Osteoporois can result in a loss of: height.
Diagnosis of osteoporosis is confirmed with: 1. Client history which means patient history.
Diagnosis of osteoporosis is confirmed with: 2. Bone densitometry which measures BMD which stands for bone mineral density.
Treatment for osteoporosis includes: 1. Exposure of the skin to 10 minutes of sunlight each day.
Skin has the ability to absorb (take in): calcitriol aka vitamin D.
Treatment for osteoporosis includes: 2. consuming the RDA of calcium (Ca) and calcitriol (vitamin D)
RDA stands for recommended daily allowance.
Treatment for osteoporosis includes: 3. Regular exercise.
Exercise stimulates (causes) osteocytes (bone cells) to: replicate which means duplicate (copy).
Treatment for osteoporosis includes: 4. Calcium supplements.
Treatment for osteoporosis includes: 5. Estrogen replacement therapy (ERT) for women experiencing menopause.
Treatment for osteoporosis includes: 6. Medication to slow the loss of BMD which stands for bone mineral density (compactness, strength).
BENIGN BONE TUMORS
The most common benign bone tumor is: called an osteoma.
An osteoma can be asymptomatic which means: no symptoms.
Treatment (Tx) for an osteoma that causes pain, decreased mobility or edema is: surgical removal (excision).
MALIGNANT BONE TUMORS
A primary bone malignancy is abbreviated OS which stands for: osteogenic sarcoma.
Osteogenic sarcoma (OS) occurs more frequently during: ages 13 to 19 aka adolescence.
Primary bone malignancies originate in the: bone
Secondary bone malignancies metastasize (spread) from: other sites (locations).
Prognosis for a secondary bone malignancy is: poor.
Osteogenic sarcoma can cause extreme pain and spontaneous fracture which means: bones break without trauma (injury)
Signs and symptoms of osteogenic sarcoma include: 1. Osteodynia which means bone pain.
Signs and symptoms of osteogenic sarcoma include: 2. Decreased range of motion.
Signs and symptoms of osteogenic sarcoma include: 3. Edema which means swelling.
Signs and symptoms of osteogenic sarcoma include: 4. A pathological fracture which means the bone breaks at the site (location) of the neoplasm (tumor).
Treatment for osteogenic carcinoma includes: a. Antineoplastic medications aka chemotherapy.
Treatment for osteogenic carcinoma includes: b. Surgical removal (excision) of the neoplasm (tumor.
Treatment for osteogenic carcinoma includes: c. Surgical removal (excision) of the affected limb called an amputation.
OSTEOARTHRITIS (OA)
Osteoarthritis means: inflammation of bone and joint.
A joint is found where one bone meets another bone and: articulates which means moves.
Osteoarthritis is a chronic (persistent) and progressive DJD which stands for: degenerative joint disease.
Joints commonly affected by osteoarthritis (OA) include the: 1. Hands and fingers.
Joints commonly affected by osteoarthritis (OA) include the: 2. Vertebrae aka back bones or spinal column.
Joints commonly affected by osteoarthritis (OA) include the: 3. Hips aka the pelvis.
Joints commonly affected by osteoarthritis (OA) include the: 4. Knees and feet.
Causes of osteoarthritis include: 1. Heredity aka familial or genetic.
Causes of osteoarthritis include: 2. Chronic (persistent) irritation or trauma (injury).
Causes of osteoarthritis include: 3. Obesity especially in joints of the hips, knees and feet.
Causes of osteoarthritis include: 4. Aging due to wear and tear.
Signs and symptoms of osteoarthritis include: a. Arthralgia
Signs and symptoms of osteoarthritis include: b. Erythema which means redness.
Signs and symptoms of osteoarthritis include: c. Edema which means swelling.
Signs and symptoms of osteoarthritis include: d. Joint stiffness especially upon waking.
Osteoarthritis (OA ) can cause: irregular bone deposits called spurs.
Treatment for osteoarthritis includes: 1. ROM exercises which stands for range of motion (movement).
Treatment for osteoarthritis includes: 2. Thermotherapy which means heat treatment.
Treatment for osteoarthritis includes: 3. Cryotherapy which means cold treatment.
Treatment for osteoarthritis includes: 4. PT which stands for physical therapy.
Treatment for osteoarthritis includes: 5. NSAIDS which stands for nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.
Treatment for advanced osteoarthritis includes: a. THR which stands for total hip replacement.
Treatment for advanced osteoarthritis includes: b. TKR which stands for total knee replacement.
GOUT
Gout is an arthritis caused by: hyperuricemia which means blood condition of excessive uric acid.
Gout can affect any joint but commonly affects the joints of the: big toes aka great toes.
Complications of gout include: 1. Nephrolithiasis which means abnormal condition of kidney stones (renal calculi).
Complications of gout include: 2. Uric acid crystal deposits under the skin called tophi.
Treatment (Tx) for gout include reducing consumption of: a. Liver and meat and seafood.
Treatment (Tx) for gout include reducing consumption of: b. Ethanol (ETOH) especially beer.
Treatment (Tx) for gout include reducing consumption of: c. NSAIDS which stands for non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.
Treatment (Tx) for gout include reducing consumption of: d. Medications to reduce the production of uric acid.
RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS (RA)
Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic autoimmune synovitis which means: autoimmune inflammation of joint membranes.
Over 75% of people with rheumatoid arthritis: are female.
Rheumatoid arthritis can cause joint deformities and loss of ROM which stands for: range of motion (movement).
Rheumatoid arthritis is usually symmetrical which means: it occurs on both sides of the body.
Exacerbation (worsening) of RA is called: flare.
Rheumatoid arthritis can cause lumps to develop adjacent (next) to the affected joints called: rheumatoid nodules.
Signs and symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis include: 1. Arthralgia which means joint pain.
Signs and symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis include: 2. Erythema which means redness.
Signs and symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis include: 3. Edema which means swelling.
Signs and symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis include: 4. Joint stiffness especially on waking.
Treatment for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) includes: a. ROM exercises which stands for range of motion (movement).
Treatment for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) includes: b. Thermotherapy which means heat treatment.
Treatment for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) includes: c. Cryotherapy which means cold treatment.
Treatment for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) includes: d. PT which stands for physical therapy.
Treatment for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) includes: e. NSAIDS which stands for non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.
Treatment for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) includes: f. Medications to reduce the body's protective (defensive) response called immunosuppressants.
CARPAL TUNNEL SYNDROME (CTS)
Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is caused by: compression (squeezing) of a median nerve in a wrist.
CTS is trauma commonly caused by keeping a wrist in a flexed position for extended periods to perform tasks over and over: resulting in RSI which stands for repetitive strain injury.
High risk groups for carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) include: 1. Computer keyboard users. 2. Beauticians. 3. Dentists. 4. Musicians. 5. Those who use vibrating tools.
Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is characterized (described) by: hand weakness and paresthesia which means numbness and tingling.
Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is caused by: compression (squeezing) of a median nerve in the wrist.
Diagnosis of carpal tunnel syndrome is confirmed with: 1. RSI which means history of repetitive strain injury.
Diagnosis of carpal tunnel syndrome is confirmed with: 2. EMG whiich stands for electromyography.
Treatment for carpal tunnel syndrome includes: 1. Proper alignment of wrists.
Treatment for carpal tunnel syndrome includes: 2. Avoidance of repetitive hand movement with a flexed wrist.
Treatment for carpal tunnel syndrome includes: 3. The use of braces and/or splints.
Treatment for carpal tunnel syndrome includes: 4. NSAIDS which stands for nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.
Treatment for carpal tunnel syndrome includes: 5. Surgery to relieve pressure on the median nerve(s) abbreviated ECTR which stands for endoscopic carpal tunnel release.
HERNIATED INTERVERTEBRAL DISK (HID)
A herniated intervertebral disk (HID) is aka a: slipped disk or ruptured disk or bulging disk.
A herniated intervertebral disk occurs more frequently in the: lumbar vertebrae and is commonly caused by poor body mechanics.
Lumbar vertebrae are aka: the inferior (lower) back bones.
Complications of a HID include pressure exerted (placed) on the spinal cord and/or spinal nerves causing extreme pain and paralysis which means: loss of feeling and/or loss of movement.
A herniated intervertebral disk (HID)that causes irritation and inflammation of a sciatic nerve is called: sciatica.
A herniated intervertebral disk occurs more frequently in the: lumbar (low back) vertebrae (back bones) and is commonly caused by poor body mechanics.
Treatment for a herniated intervertebral disk includes: 1. Bed rest on a firm mattress.
Treatment for a herniated intervertebral disk includes: 2. Thermotherapy which means heat treatment.
Treatment for a herniated intervertebral disk includes: 3. Muscle relaxant medications classified to relieve spasms which are involuntary muscle contractions.
Treatment for a herniated intervertebral disk includes: 4. Analgesic medications to relieve pain.
Treatment for a herniated intervertebral disk includes: 5. The process of pulling to align bones abbreviated trx which stands for traction. Align means straighten.
Treatment for a herniated intervertebral disk includes: 6. TENS which stands for transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation.
Treatment for a herniated intervertebral disk includes: 7. Diskectomy and spondylodesis which means surgical removal (excision) of a disk and vertebral fusion which means surgical fixation (no movement) of the adjacent back bones.
HERNIAS
Hernia means: protrusion or bulging.
Protrusion (bulging) of the stomach through the diaphragm is abbreviated HH which stands for: Hiatal hernia aka diaphragmatic hernia.
The diaphragm is the primary muscle of: ventilation (breathing).
Protrusion (bulging) of the intestine through the belly button is abbreviated: UH which stands for umbilical hernia.
Protrusion (bulging) of the intestine into the groin or rectum is abbreviated IH which stands for: inguinal hernia.
Protrusion (bulging) of tissue causing constriction of blood circulation is called a: strangulated hernia.
Treatment (Tx) for a hernia includes: 1. Use of a device for external support of the hernia called a truss.
Treatment (Tx) for a hernia includes: 2. Hernioplasty which means surgical repair of a hernia.
INTEGUMENTARY DISEASES
An acute (sudden) contagious skin disease caused by staphylococcus (staph) or streptococci (strep) especially in infants and children is called: impetigo.
Signs and symptoms of impetigo include: 1. Erythematic skin which means redness.
Signs and symptoms of impetigo include: 2. Oozing vesicles which are fluid filled papules aka blisters.
Signs and symptoms of impetigo include: 3. A honey colored crust with pustules which are pus filled papules.
Treatment for impetigo includes: a. Washing your hands properly.
Treatment for impetigo includes: b. Gentle cleansing and removal of the crusts with antiseptic soap.
Treatment for impetigo includes: c. Avoiding the habit of touching the lesions.
Treatment for impetigo includes: d. Prescription-strength antibiotic ung which stands for ointment.
LYME DISEASE
Lyme disease is a bacterial disease transmitted (spread) by the bite of a: tick.
Ticks usually cannot transmit (spread) Lyme disease until: they are attached for 36 hours.
The sooner the tick is removed the less chance of: contracting (catching) Lyme disease.
Signs and symptoms of Lyme disease include: 1. A solid red oval or bull's eye rash.
Signs and symptoms of Lyme disease include: 2. Malaise which means feeling unwell.
Signs and symptoms of Lyme disease include: 3. Cephalgia which means headache (HA).
Signs and symptoms of Lyme disease include: 4. Elevated oral body temperature greater than 100F.
Signs and symptoms of Lyme disease include: 5. Arthralgia which means joint pain.
Signs and symptoms of Lyme disease include: 6. Myalgia which means muscle pain.
Signs and symptoms of Lyme disease include: 7. Lymphadenopathy which means edematous (swollen) lymph nodes.
Treatment for Lyme disease includes: anti-infective medications called antibiotics.
Lyme disease is a bacterial disease transmitted (spread) by: the bite of a tick.
HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS 1 (HSV1)
The herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV1) enters the body through: a break in the skin around or inside the mouth and can cause herpetic stomatitis which means inflammation of the oral cavity caused by the herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV 1) aka cold sores or fever blisters.
Signs and symptoms of herpetic stomatitis include: 1. An elevated oral body temperature greater than 100F called pyrexia.
Signs and symptoms of herpetic stomatitis include: 2. Labial vesicles which are lip blisters.
Signs and symptoms of herpetic stomatitis include: 3. Pharyngitis which means inflammation of the pharynx (throat).
Signs and symptoms of herpetic stomatitis include: 4. Lymphadenopathy which means edematous (swollen) lymph nodes.
The herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV 1) can remain dormant (inactive) in the body for months but frequently becomes active when: a person's immune system is compromised (weakened).
Treatment for herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV 1) includes: antiviral medications that decrease the virus' ability to replicate which means duplicate or copy.
TINEA
Tinea refers to a variety of communicable integumentary epidermomycoses which means: contagious fungal infections of the skin and/or hair and/or nails.
Tinea (ringworm) is also known as: dermatophytosis which means proliferation (rapid reproduction) of dermatophytes.
Signs and symptoms of tinea (ringworm) include: 1. Erythematous (red) skin eruptions sometimes in the shape of a ring.
Signs and symptoms of tinea (ringworm) include: 2. Pruritus which means itching.
Signs and symptoms of tinea (ringworm) include: 3. Vesicles which are flui filled pustules aka blisters.
Signs and symptoms of tinea (ringworm) include: 4. Fissures which are cracks.
Types of tinea (ringworm) include: a. Tinea corporis aka body ringworm. Tinea corporis (body ringworm) usually involves parts of the body not covered by hair.
Types of tinea (ringworm) include: b. Tinea pedia aka foot ringworm or athlete's foot. Tinea (ringworm) rfers to integumentary skin, hair and nail fungal proliferation (infection).
c. Tinea cruris aka groin ringworm or jock itch.
Environmental factors that stimulate fungal proliferation (growth) include: warm, dark and moist environments such as locker rooms and/or swimming areas and/or skin folds.
Treatment for tinea includes: 1. Keeping susceptible (likely) areas dry.
2. Anti-infective medications called antifungals.
PARASITICAL INFESTATIONS
An organism (life form) that benefits at the expense of it's host is called a: parasite (parasitic).
To live in or on a host as a parasite is called an: infestation.
A lice infestation is called: pediculosis. Lice ova (eggs) are called nits.
Infestation means:P to live in or on a host as a parasite.
Pediculosis (lice infestation) can occur on: 1. The scalp called head lice.
Pediculosis (lice infestation) can occur on: 2. The corpus called body lice.
Pediculosis (lice infestation) can occur on: 3. The pubic area called crab lice ("crabs").
Scalp pediculosis are common among children and are transmitted by direct contact or fomites such as: a. brushes and combs. b. clothes, hats and scarves and bed linens.
Fomites are: inanimate contaminated objects.
The primary symptom of pediculosis is intense (severe) pruritus which means: itching.
Treatment for pediculosis includes: 1. Topical medications and use of a fine toothed comb to remove the ova (eggs) called nits.
Some studies show that lice are becoming resistant to: topical medications.
Treatment for pediculosis (lice infestation) includes: 2. Washing clothes and bedding in hot water greater than 130F followed by machine drying.
Items that cannot be washed should be: dry cleaned or sealed in a plastic bag for 2 weeks.
SCABIES
Scabies is a communicable (contagious) skin infestation caused by the: burrowing "itch mite".
Signs and symptoms of scabies ("itch mite") infestations include: 1. Erythematous vesicular skin lesions which means red fluid filled papules (blisters).
2. Intense pruritus which means severe itching.
Scabies is transmitted (spread) by direct contact or fomites such as: a. Brushes and combs. b. Clothes, hats and scarves. c. Bed linen.
Treatment for a scabies infestation includes topical medications and washing clothes and bedding in hot water greater than 130F: followed by machine drying.
Items that cannot be washed should be: dry cleaned or sealed in a plastic bag for 2 weeks.
ALLERGIC CONTACT DERMATITIS (ACD)
Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) is a: noncontagious inflammation of the skin caused by the body's immune response to an allergen which means allergy creator.
Common allergens (disease creators) associated with allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) include: 1. Plants such as poison ivy or poison oak. Leaves of 3 beware of me.
Common allergens (disease creators) associated with allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) include: 2. Chemicals found in clothing dyes, soaps and perfumes.
Common allergens (disease creators) associated with allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) include: 3. Inexpensive metals such as nickel found in costume jewelry.
Signs and symptoms of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) include: a. An erythematous and possibly vesicular rash which means red with fluid filled papules (blisters).
Signs and symptoms of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) include: b. Intense pruritus which means severe itching.
Treatment for allergic contact dermatitis includes: 1. Identification and removal of the allergen.
Treatment for allergic contact dermatitis includes: 2. Topical SAIDS which stands for steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.
Treatment for allergic contact dermatitis includes: 3. Medications against the inflammatory chemical histamine called antihistamines.
ATOPIC DERMATITIS (AD
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is aka: eczema.
Eczema is an idiopathic (unknown cause) condition more common in: those with a history of allergies and/or asthma.
Signs and symptoms of atopic dermatitis (AD) include: 1. Very dry, thickened, and scaly skin with crusted patches.
Signs and symptoms of atopic dermatitis (AD) include: 2. Pruritus which means itching.
Eczema (atopic dermatitis) "flare ups" will disappear in approximately half of all children before: adolescence (age 13).
Treatment for atopic dermatitis includes: 1. Topical SAIDS which stands for steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.
Treatment for atopic dermatitis includes: 2. Medications against the inflammatory chemical histamine called antihistamines.
ACNE VULGARIS (AV)
Acne vulgaris (AV) is caused by sebum (oil) and necrotic (dead) skin cells clogging the openings (pores) of: hair follicles.
Acne vulgaris (AV) can occur on the: face, neck, chest and back.
Characteristics of acne vulgaris (AV) include: 1. Papules which are small skin elevations.
Characteristics of acne vulgaris (AV) include: 2. Erythema which means redness.
Characteristics of acne vulgaris (AV) include: 3. Pustules which are pus filled papules.
Characteristics of acne vulgaris (AV) include: 4. Comedones which are whiteheads and/or blackheads.
Acne vulgaris (AV) can exacerbate (worsen) with hormonal fluctuations associated with: a. Adolescence which includes ages 13-19.
Acne vulgaris (AV) can exacerbate (worsen) with hormonal fluctuations associated with: b. PMS which stands for premenstrual syndrome.
Acne vulgaris (AV) can exacerbate (worsen) with hormonal fluctuations associated with: c. Pregnancy aka gestation.
Acne vulgaris (AV) can exacerbate (worsen) with hormonal fluctuations associated with: d. Poorly controlled stress.
Treatment for acne vulgaris (AV) includes: 1. Gentle cleansing of the skin bid (twice a day) with mild soap.
Treatment for acne vulgaris (AV) includes: 2. Avoiding the habit of touching the acne.
Treatment for acne vulgaris (AV) includes: 3. Anti-acne medications and non-comedogenic skin care products.
PSORIASIS
Psoriasis is a chronic (persistent) hereditary (familial) autoimmune skin disease with periods of remission which means: the signs and symptoms subside (diminish or disappear) and exacerbation which means the signs and symptoms worsen.
Signs and symptoms of psoriasis include: 1. Erythematous (red) patches on the skin with white or silvery flaky scales.
Signs and symptoms of psoriasis include: 2. Pruritus which means itching.
Psoriatic skin lesions primarily form on the: elbows and knees but can occur on the trunk and arms and legs and scalp.
Factors that exacerbate (worsen) psoriasis are called triggers and include: 1. Poorly controlled stress.
Factors that exacerbate (worsen) psoriasis are called triggers and include: 2. Changes in the weather.
Factors that exacerbate (worsen) psoriasis are called triggers and include: 3. Integumentary traume which means injury to the skin.
Factors that exacerbate (worsen) psoriasis are called triggers and include: 4. NSAIDS which stands for non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.
Factors that exacerbate (worsen) psoriasis are called triggers and include: 5. Proliferation (rapid reproduction) of antigens (pathogens) causing skin infections.
Treatment for psoriasis includes: a. SAIDS which stands for steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.
Treatment for psoriasis includes: b. UVR therapy which stands for ultraviolet radiation.
Treatment for psoriasis includes: c. Medications to reduce the body's protective (defensive) response calld immunosuppressants.
A complication of psoriasis is an: inflammation of the joints called psoriatic arthritis.
INTEGUMANARY NEOPLASMS
Nevus (nevi) means: mole(s)
A common nevus (mole) is a benign neoplasm (new growth) on the: skin that is usually small, pink, tan, or brown and has a distinct even edge.
A dysplastic (atypical) nevus is: larger than a pencil eraser with a dark brown center and a lighter edge that is uneven.
The presence of dysplastic nevi increases the risk of developing MM which stands for: malignant melanoma.
Malignant melanoma is more common in: Caucasians.
Malignant melanoma (MM) is the most serious form of skin cancer (Ca) because: it metastasizes (spreads) quickly through the lymphatic system.
Malignant melanoma (MM) is associated with: over exposure to UVR which stands for ultraviolet radiation.
Sources of ultraviolet radiation (UVR) include: the sun and/or tanning beds.
The ABCDEs of malignant melanoma (MM) include: 1. Asymmetry which means one half of a nevus (mole) does not match the other half.
The ABCDEs of malignant melanoma (MM) include: 2. Border of a nevus (mole) is ragged, blurred or irregular (uneven).
The ABCDEs of malignant melanoma (MM) include: 3. Color of a nevus (mole) is not the same throughout.
The ABCDEs of malignant melanoma (MM) include: 4. Diameter of a nevus (mole) is larger than the eraser of a pencil.
The ABCDEs of malignant melanoma (MM) include: 5. Elevated meaning a mole (nevus) is raised from the skin.
Treatment for malignant melanoma (MM) include: 1. Surgical removal (excision) of the melanoma and lymphadenectomy which means surgical removal (excision) of adjacent lymph nodes.
Treatment for malignant melanoma (MM) include: 2. Chemotherapy aka antineoplastic medications.
Treatment for malignant melanoma (MM) include: 3. Beams of intense energy called radiation therapy.
Prognosis (Px) for malignant melanoma (MM): depends on the degree of metastasis (spread).
BASAL CELL CARCINOMA
Basal cell carcinoma (BCC): is the most common skin cancer that is slow growing and usually non-metastasizing.
Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) commonly develops on: the face or neck of light skinned men who are over exposed to UVR which stands for ultraviolet radiation.
Treatment for basal cell carcinoma (BCC) includes: 1. Surgical removal of the tumor.
Treatment for basal cell carcinoma (BCC) includes: 2. Antineoplastic medication aka chemotherapy.
Treatment for basal cell carcinoma (BCC) includes: 3. Beams of intense energy called radiation therap.
SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA (SCC)
Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is a more serious neoplasm (new growth) because: metastasis (spread) occurs (happens) through the lymphatic system.
Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) commonly develops on the: face, ears, neck, lips and back of the hands of light skinned men who are over exposed to ultraviolet radiation.
Treatment for squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) includes: 1. Surgical removal (excision) of the tumor (neoplasm)
Treatment for squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) includes: 2. Antineoplastic medication aka chemotherapy.
Treatment for squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) includes: 3. Beams of intense energy called radiation therapy.
SCC stands for: squamous cell carcinoma.
Created by: bterrelonge