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RESPIRATORY DISEASES

Fundamentals of Disease Processes

QuestionAnswer
RESPIRATORY DISEASES: An infection of the sinuses, nose, or pharynx (throat) is called an URI which stands for: upper respiratory infection or URD which stands for upper respiratory disease.
Upper respiratory infections (URI) aka upper respiratory diseases (URD) include: 1. Coryza aka the common cold.
Upper respiratory infections (URI) aka upper respiratory diseases (URD) include 2. Sinusitis which means inflammation of the paranasal sinuses.
Upper respiratory infections (URI) aka upper respiratory diseases (URD) include 3. Hay fever abbreviated SAR which stands for seasonal allergic rhinitis.
Upper respiratory infections (URI) aka upper respiratory diseases (URD) include 4. Tonsillitis which means inflammation of the palatine tonsils.
Upper respiratory infections (URI) aka upper respiratory diseases (URD) include 5. Pharyngitis which means inflammation of the pharynx (throat).
Upper respiratory infections (URI) aka upper respiratory diseases (URD) include 6. Laryngitis which means inflammation of the larynx (voice box).
Upper respiratory infections (URI) aka upper respiratory diseases (URD) include 7. Flu virus types such as influenza A and influenza B.
CORYZA: Coryza is aka: the common cold.
Coryza (common cold) is caused by more than 200 different strains (types) of viruses that are highly catchy called: contagious aka communicable.
Treatment (Tx) for coryza (common cold) includes: 2. Copious rhinorrhea which means large amount of nasal discharge.
:Treatment (Tx) for coryza (common cold) includes: 3. Pyrexia (fever) in children.
Treatment (Tx) for coryza (common cold) includes: 4. Pharyngitis which means inflammation of the pharynx (throat).
Recovering from coryza does not provide: a lasting immunity.
Viscous (thick) yellow or green mucus secretion is a sign of a secondary bacterial infection commonly caused by: staphylococci or streptococci or pneumococci.
Treatment (Tx) for coryza (common cold) includes: 1. Rest and forcing liquids which means increasing fluid intake.
Treatment (Tx) for coryza (common cold) includes: 2. Medications against pyrexia (fever) called antipyretics.
Treatment (Tx) for coryza (common cold) includes: 3. Medications to decrease nasal stuffiness called decongestants.
Treatment (Tx) for coryza (common cold) includes: 4. Medications against coughing called antitussives.
Treatment (Tx) for coryza (common cold) includes: 5. Antibiotic therapy for signs or symptoms of a secondary bacterial infection.
SINUSITIS: Sinusitis means : inflammation of the paranasal sinuses.
The paranasal sinuses are a connected system of air-filled cavities within the cranium (skull) lined with: mucous membranes.
Sinusitis is characterized by edematous (swollen) mucous membranes (linings) called: sinus congestion.
Sinus congestion can be caused by: 1. Coryza aka the common cold.
Sinus congestion can be caused by: 2. Hay fever abbreviated SAR which stands for seasonal allergic rhinitis.
Sinus congestion can be caused by: 3. Nasal polyps which are benign neoplasms aka nonmalignant (nonspreading) new growths.
Sinus congestion can be caused by: 4. An abnormal nose wall called a deviated nasal septum.
A symptom of sinusitis is: cephalgia commonly described as facial pain and/or facial pressure.
Cephalgia means: head pain.
Treatment for sinusitis includes: 1. Medication against the action of histamine (inflammatory chemical) called antihistamines.
Treatment for sinusitis includes: 2. Medications to decrease sinus stuffiness called decongestants.
Treatment for sinusitis includes: 3. Use of a steam vaporizer aka nebulizer or atomizer.
OBSTRUCTIVE SLEEP APNEA: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is characterized by periods of: no breathing while sleeping.
OSA is commonly caused by: 1. An abnormal nose wall called a deviated nasal septum.
OSA is commonly caused by: 2. Nasal polyps which are benign neoplasms aka nonmalignant (nonspreading) new growths.
OSA is commonly caused by: 3. Lingual prolapse and/or soft palate prolapse which means displacement (drooping or sagging) of the tongue (lingua) and/or posterior oral roof.
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is characterized by: heavy, long and loud snoring and snorting.
Untreated obstructed sleep apnea (OSA) increases the risk of: 1. Chronic HTN which means persistent hypertension aka high blood pressure (HBP)
Untreated obstructed sleep apnea (OSA) increases the risk of: 2. CVA which stands for cerebral vascular accident aka a stroke.
Untreated obstructed sleep apnea (OSA) increases the risk of: 3. DM which stands for diabetes mellitus.
Untreated obstructed sleep apnea (OSA) increases the risk of: 4. MI which stands for myocardial infarction aka a heart attack or coronary.
Untreated obstructed sleep apnea (OSA) increases the risk of: 5. CHF which stands for congestive heart failure.
Untreated obstructed sleep apnea (OSA) increases the risk of: 6. Abnormal cardiac (heart) rhythms called arrhythmias or dysrhythmias.
Untreated obstructed sleep apnea (OSA) increases the risk of: 7. MDD which stands for major depressive disorder aka clinical depression.
Untreated obstructed sleep apnea (OSA) increases the risk of: 8. Premature loss of cognitive (intellectual) abilities called dementia.
Treatment for obstructive sleep apnea includes: 1. C-PAP which stands for continuous positive airway pressure.
Treatment for obstructive sleep apnea includes: 2. Surgical repair of the occlusion.
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is characterized by periods of: no breathing while sleeping.
HAY FEVER:
Hay fever is also known as SAR which stands for: seasonal allergic rhinitis.
Seasonal allergic rhinitis (SAR) is commonly caused by allergies to: pollen, ragweed and grasses.
Signs and symptoms of hay fever also known as seasonal allergic rhinitis (SAR) include: 1. Coughing, sneezing and nose stuffiness aka nasal congestion.
Signs and symptoms of hay fever also known as seasonal allergic rhinitis (SAR) include: 2. Copious rhinorrhea which means large amount of nasal (nose) discharge (flow).
Signs and symptoms of hay fever also known as seasonal allergic rhinitis (SAR) include: 3. HA which stands for headache aka cephalgia.
Signs and symptoms of hay fever also known as seasonal allergic rhinitis (SAR) include: 5. Ringing or buzzing in the ears called tinnitus.
Signs and symptoms of hay fever also known as seasonal allergic rhinitis (SAR) include: 6. Pharyngitis which means inflammation of the pharynx (throat)
Signs and symptoms of hay fever also known as seasonal allergic rhinitis (SAR) include: 7. Nasopharynx drainage abbreviated PND which stands for postnasal drip.
Treatment (Tx) for hay fever aka SAR includes: 1. Medication against the action of histamine (inflammatory chemical) called antihistamines.
Treatment (Tx) for hay fever aka SAR includes: 2. Medications to decrease nasal stuffiness called decongestants.
Treatment (Tx) for hay fever aka SAR includes: 3. Periodic injections of allergen immunotherapy to stop or reduce sensitivity to allergens aka allergy desensitization or "allergy shots".
TONSILLITIS Tonsillitis means inflammation of the tonsils.
Tonsillitis is commonly caused by viruses such as: influenza (flu) and the EBV which stands for Epstein-Barr virus.
Signs and symptoms of tonsillitis (inflamed tonsils) include: 1. Edematous and erythromatous tonsils which means swollen and red.
Signs and symptoms of tonsillitis (inflamed tonsils) include: 2. Dysphagia which means painful or difficult swallowing.
Signs and symptoms of tonsillitis (inflamed tonsils) include: 3. Pyrexia (fever) which is an elevated oral body temperature greater than 100F.
Signs and symptoms of tonsillitis (inflamed tonsils) include: 4. Tonsillar pustules which are pus filled papules. Papules are small raised lesions (abnormal tissue).
Tonsillitis (inflamed tonsils) and cervical (neck) lymphadenopathy without sneezing, coughing or rhinorrhea (nasal discharge) usually indicates (shows) a: streptocococcal infection aka "strep throat".
Lymphadenopathy means: swollen lymph nodes.
Treatment for tonsillitis includes: a. Gargling with salt water.
Treatment for tonsillitis includes: b. Medications to reduce fever called antipyretics.
Treatment for tonsillitis includes: c. Antibiotic therapy if signs and symptoms indicate a bacterial infection.
Treatment for tonsillitis includes: d. Bilateral tonsillectomy which means surgical removal (excision) of both tonsils.
INFLUENZA: An influenza (flu) endemic that occurs every winter in the US is usually caused by the influenza (flu) virus types A and B. The season runs from November through March.
Signs and symptoms of influenza (flu) include: 1. A feeling of being unwell called malaise.
Signs and symptoms of influenza (flu) include: 2. Chills and intermittent pyrexia which means periodic fever.
Signs and symptoms of influenza (flu) include: 3. Coughing, sneezing and nose stuffiness aka nasal congestion.
Signs and symptoms of influenza (flu) include: 4. Copious rhinorrhea which means large amount of nasal (nose) discharge (flow).
Signs and symptoms of influenza (flu) include: 5. Thoracalgia which means chest pain especially when coughing.
Signs and symptoms of influenza (flu) include: 6. Myalgia which means muscle pain.
Signs and symptoms of influenza (flu) include: 7. Cephalgia which means headache (HA).
Signs and symptoms of influenza (flu) include: 8. vomiting and/or severe diarrhea which means more than ten (10) loose watery stools in 24 hours.
An influenza (flu) endemic that occurs every winter in the US is usually caused by the: influenza virus types A and B.
The influenza virus is primarily transmitted by: projecting droplets when coughing or sneezing or talking.
The average distance people can transmit the influenza virus is: six (6 feet).
Influenza can be transmitted: 24 hours before symptoms appear to 7 days after symptoms appear.
The best method to reduce the risk of developing an influenza infection is annual: influenza (flu) vaccination aka an influenza immunization or influenza inoculation or "flu shot".
An attenuated immunization (vaccination or inoculation) means the: antigen (disease creator) is unable to reproduce (replicate).
An inactivated immunization (vaccination or inoculation) means : the antigen (disease creator) is dead.
Methods to reduce the risk of contracting the influenza virus include: 1. The consumption of nutritious food and regular exercise.
Methods to reduce the risk of contracting the influenza virus include: 3. Being aware of inanimate contaminated objects called fomites. Flu viruses can survive on fomites between2 to 8 hours.
Methods to reduce the risk of contracting the influenza virus include: 4. Separation of infected individuals called isolation or quarantine.
Methods to reduce the risk of contracting the influenza virus include: 5. Frequent proper hand washing
Influenza can range in severity from: mild to life threatening.
A complication associated with influenza is an: inflammation of a/the lungs called pneumonia.
Influenza can be life threatening to those who are immunocompromised (weakened immune system) such as: a. Very young. b. Elderly. Chronically (persistently) ill clients.
Treatment (Tx) for influenza (flu) includes: 1. Rest and forcing fluids which means increasing fluid intake.
Treatment (Tx) for influenza (flu) includes: 2. The consumption (eating) of nutritious (healthy) food.
Treatment (Tx) for influenza (flu) includes: 3. Medications against pyrexia (fever) called antipyretics.
Treatment (Tx) for influenza (flu) includes: 4. Medication to decrease nasal stuffiness called decongestants.
Treatment (Tx) for influenza (flu) includes: 5. Medications against the action of histamine called antihistamines. Histamine is an inflammatory chemical.
Treatment (Tx) for influenza (flu) includes: 6. Medications to reduce pain called analgesics.
Treatment (Tx) for influenza (flu) includes:
Treatment (Tx) for influenza (flu) includes: 8. Medications against coughing called antitussives.
Treatment (Tx) for influenza (flu) includes: 9.Medications to shorten the influenza duration (length) and decrease its severity (strength) called antivirals.
Treatment (Tx) for influenza (flu) includes: 10. Prophylactic antibiotic therapy for those who are immunocompromised which means weakened immune system. Prophylactic means preventative or protection.
LOWER RESPIRATORY DISEASES (LRD) Lower respiratory diseases (LRD) include COPDs which stands for chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases. Chronic means recurrent or persistent.
Chronic bronchitis is a COPD characterized by: recurring inflammation of the primary (1st) bronchi (airways) and secondary (2nd) bronchi (airways) and tertiary (3rd) bronchi and bronchioles (small airways).
Chronic bronchitis is commonly caused by: respiratory irritants such as air pollution that includes smoke and/or allergens. Chronic means recurring or persistent.
Chronic bronchitis is commonly caused by: pathogenic bacteria and pathogenic viruses and allergens (allergy creators.
Signs and symptoms of chronic bronchitis include: 1. Dyspnea which means ventilation (breathing).
Signs and symptoms of chronic bronchitis include: 2. Thoracalgia (Thoracodynia) which mean chest pain.
Signs and symptoms of chronic bronchitis include: 3. A productive cough which means sputum (phlegm) creation
Sputum (phlegm) is mucus secreted (produced and discharged) from the: trachea (windpipe) and bronchi (airways).
Chronic bronchitis is often a sequela (aftereffect) of an URI which stands for: upper respiratory infection.
Chronic bronchitis is most serious in young children, chronically ill clients, the elderly because of the: complication of inflammation of a/the lungs called pneumonia.
Treatment (Tx) for chronic bronchitis includes: 1. Removal of the respiratory irritants.
Treatment (Tx) for chronic bronchitis includes: 2. Antibiotic therapy for bacterial infection.
Treatment (Tx) for chronic bronchitis includes: 3. Nebulizer therapy aka a vaporizer or aerosol.
ASTHMA Asthma is a COPD associated with allergies.
Allergies can cause asthma by triggering one (1) of the body's immune responses to trauma called: inflammation. Responses are reactions.
Allergies that trigger asthma can be: hereditary aka familial or genetic.
Asthma is also characterized by bronchoconstriction which means: airway stenosis (narrowing). Asthma is also characterized by bronchospasms which are involuntary (no control) airway muscle contractions.
Bronchoconstriction and bronchospasms associated with asthma cause a: whistling breath sound (BS) called rhonchi aka wheezing.
Exacerbation of asthma has been linked to: 1. URI and LRI which stand for upper respiratory infection and lower respiratory infection.
Exacerbation of asthma has been linked to: 2. Barometric pressure change which indicate weather changes.
Exacerbation of asthma has been linked to: 3. Anxiety from poorly controlled stress.
Exacerbation of asthma has been linked to: 4. Strenuous exercise without a warm up period or a cool down period.
Asthma incidence is associated with an: ultra clean environment during infancy and early childhood.
Asthma is characterized by: inflammation and bronchoconstriction (airway stenosis) + bronchospasms (involuntary airway muscle contraction).
Asthma incidence is associated with a: sedentary lifestyle which means little or no exercise.
There is no cure for asthma but: attacks may become less severe with age.
Asthma risk decreases if a neonate (newborn) is: breastfed.
Treatment for asthma includes: 1. Avoidance of allergens by living in a climate that is dry. Asthma is characterized by inflammation and bronchoconstriction and bronchospasms.
Treatment for asthma includes: 2. Avoidance of allergens by using HEPA filters which stands for high efficiency particulate air.
Allergens are: allergy creators.
Treatment for asthma includes: 3. Avoidance of allergens by carefully reading the ingredient section of food labels.
Treatment for asthma includes: 4. Avoidance of allergens by using dust mite proof bed linen and pillow covers.
Treatment for asthma includes: 5. Periodic injections of allergen immunotherapy to stop or reduce sensitivity to allergens aka allergy desensitization or "allergy shots".
Treatment for asthma includes: 6. SAIDS which stands for steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.
Treatment for asthma includes: 7. Medications that increase the diameter (lumen) of the airways called bronchodilators.
Asthma can be monitored by measuring the maximum amount of air that can be exhaled with a PF which stands for: peak flow meter.
Asthma is characterized by: inflammation and bronchoconstriction (airway stenosis) + bronchospasma (involunary airway muscle contractions).
A life threatening asthma attack is called: status asthmaticus. Without treatment, status asthmaticus can end in respiratory failure and death.
A common emergency bronchodilator medication administered to treat status asthmaticus is called: Adrenalin aka epinephrine.
EMPHYSEMA Emphysema is a COPD characteried by progressive irreversible loss of alveolar function.
Alveolar refers to: microscopic air sacs that can exchange (swap oxygen and carbon dioxide.
Emphysema is commonly associated with: heavy cigarette smoking.
Signs and symptoms of emphysema include: 1. Dyspnea (difficult ventilation) especially when breathing out called exhaling.
Signs and symptoms of emphysema include: 2. DOE which stands for dyspnea on exertion.
Signs and symptoms of emphysema include: 3. Use of accessory (extra) muscles for normal ventilation which means breathing.
Signs and symptoms of emphysema include: 4. Easy fatigue which means loss of energy.
Signs and symptoms of emphysema include: 5. A crackling sound heard during auscultation (listening with a stethoscope) called rales.
Signs and symptoms of emphysema include: 6. Tachypnea which means fast breathing.
Signs and symptoms of emphysema include: 7. A bluish skin discoloration called cyanosis.
Signs and symptoms of emphysema include: 8. Loss of weight.
Signs and symptoms of emphysema include: 9. A rounding of the thorax called a barrel chest.
Emphysema commonly causes: cardiomegaly (enlargement of the heart) and CHF which stands for congestive heart failure.
Congestive heart failure (CHF) indicates: a weak pump.
Diagnosis of emphysema is confirmed with: 1. The patient's smoking history.
Diagnosis of emphysema is confirmed with: 2. Thoracic x-ray picture slices abbreviated CT which stands for computerized tomography.
Diagnosis of emphysema is confirmed with: 3 . ABG which stands for arterial blood gases
Diagnosis of emphysema is confirmed with: 4. Spirometry which means process of measuring ventilation.
Ventilation means: inspiration and expiration aka breathing.
Treatment for emphysema includes: 1. Removal of respiratory irritants.
Treatment for emphysema includes: 2. Medications to increase the diameter (lumen) of the airways called bronchodilators.
Treatment for emphysema includes:
Treatment for emphysema includes: 4. Oxygen therapy which mans oxygen treatment.
Treatment for emphysema includes: 5. Inhalation therapy (IT) such as NPPV which stands for non-invasive positive pressure ventilation and IPPB which stands for intermittent positive pressure breathing.
A complication of emphysema is: trapped air in a pleural cavity called a pneumothorax.
A pleural cavity is the space between the pleurae which are: the membranes (linings) surrounding the lungs.
A pneumothorax increases with: every inhalation and exerts pressure causing lung collapse called atelectasis.
Signs and symptoms of a pneumothorax or atelectasis include: 1. Acute (sudden) thoracalgia which means chest pain.
Signs and symptoms of a pneumothorax or atelectasis include: 2. Dyspnea which means difficult ventilation (breathing).
Signs and symptoms of a pneumothorax or atelectasis include: 3. Tachypnea which means rapid ventilation.
A pneumothorax and/or atelectasis is confirmed (proven) with a: CXR which stands for chest x-ray.
Treatment for a pneumothorax and/or atelectasis includes: pleurocentesis which means surgical puncture of a pleural cavity and insertion of a chest tube.
A chest tube will aspirate and evacuate the trapped air in a pleural cavity allowing the affected lung to: re-inflate (re-expand)
A common chest tube suction apparatus to evacuate trapped air in a pleural cavity is called: Pleur-evac.
An atelectasis can also be caused by a: 1. Hemothorax which means blood in a pleural cavity (pleural space).
An atelectasis can also be caused by a: 2. Pyothorax which means pus in a pleural cavity.
An atelectasis can also be caused by a: 3. Hydrothorax which means fluid in a pleural cavity.
An atelectasis can also be spontaneous which means: without cause.
CYSTIC FIBROSIS: CF is a hereditary COPD affecting the lungs and pancreas of children and young adults.
A serious manifestation of cystic fibrosis (CF) is: the production of copious viscous sputum which means large amount of thick phlegm.
Copious viscous sputum (phlegm): increases the risk of inflammation of a/the lungs called pneumonia.
Signs and symptoms of cystic fibrosis include: 1. Dyspnea which means difficult ventilation (breathing).
Signs and symptoms of cystic fibrosis include: 2. A whistling breath sound called rhonchi aka wheezing.
Signs and symptoms of cystic fibrosis include: 3. Chronic (persistent) expectoration of viscous (thick) sputum (phlegm).
Complications of cystic fibrosis (CF) include: 1. Trapped air in a pleural cavity (space) causing a pneumothorax.
Complications of cystic fibrosis (CF) include: 2. Lung collapse called atelectasis.
Treatment for cystic fibrosis (CF) includes: 1. Medication to treat pulmonary bacterial infections called antibiotics.
Treatment for cystic fibrosis (CF) includes: 2. Medications to break up sputum for easier expectoration (coughing up) called mucolytics.
Treatment for cystic fibrosis (CF) includes: 3. Therapy to loosen sputum for easier expectoration (coughing up) called "pulmonary toilet".
"Pulmonary toilet" therapy includes: 1. DB (deep breathing) and strong expectoration which means forceful coughing.
"Pulmonary toilet" therapy includes: 2. Positioning the head lower than the feet for gravity to assist with sputum (phlegm) removal called postural drainage.
"Pulmonary toilet" therapy includes: 3. CPT which stands for chest physiotherapy. Chest physiotherapy refers to percussion and vibration which means clapping and shaking.
A vest (sleeveless garment) to provide CPT (chest physiotherapy) by rapidly vibrating the thorax is abbreviated HFCWO which stands for: high frequency chest wall oscillation.
Cystic fibrosis also causes obstruction (occlusion) of the pancreatic ducts preventing secretion of: pancreatic digestive enzymes. Deficient secretion of pancreatic digestive enzymes causes malnutrition.
Treatment for pancreatic digestive enzyme deficiency requires: administration of oral pancreatic digestive enzyme replacement therapy a.c. before meals.
PNEUMONIA: Pneumonia is an inflammation of a lung and an accumulation of fluid and/or pus.
The fluid and/or pus accumulation can solidify called: consolidation.
Pneumonia can be caused by a variety of: pathogenic organisms.
Pneumonia is more common in those who are immunocompromised such as: 1. The very young. 2. The elderly 3. Those with AIDS.
Pneumonia is more common in those who are immunocompromised such as: 4. Those with DM which stands for diabetes mellitus.
Pneumonia is more common in those who are immunocompromised such as: 5. Those receiving chemotherapy aka antineoplastic medications.
Pneumonia is more common in those who are immunocompromised such as: 6. Those with chronic degeneration (deterioration) of the liver called cirrhosis.
Pneumonia is more common in those who are immunocompromised such as: 7. Postoperative clients which means after surgery. Postoperative clients are at greater risk of pneumonia because of their reluctance to breathe deeply and cough.
Signs and symptoms of pneumonia include: 1. Fatigue which means loss of energy.
Signs and symptoms of pneumonia include: 2. Chills and intermittent pyrexia which means periodic fever.
Signs and symptoms of pneumonia include: 3. Dyspnea which means difficult ventilation (breathing)
Signs and symptoms of pneumonia include:v 4. Thoracalgia which means chest pain.
Signs and symptoms of pneumonia include: 5. A productive cough which means sputum (phlegm) is expectorated.
Sputum is mucus secreted (produced and discharged) from the: trachea (windpipe) and bronchi (airways).
PNEUMONIA TYPES 1. Inflammation and accumulation of fluid and/or pus in a section of a lung called lobar pneumonia.
Treatment for lobar pneumonia includes rest and consumption of: a. Clear liquids to reduce the viscosity of expectorated mucus called sputum or phlegm.
Treatment for lobar pneumonia includes consumption of: b. Nutritious food to strengthen the immune system.
Treatment for lobar pneumonia: c. Antibiotic therapy for pneumonia caused by bacterial infection. Antibiotic therapy is not effective against viral infections.
Treatment for lobar pneumonia: d. Therapy to loosen sputum (phlegm) for easier expectoration called "pulmonary toilet".
Types of pneumonia include: 2. Inflammation and accumulation of fluid and/or pus that is diffuse (spread out) called bronchopneumonia.
Treatment for bronchopneumonia includes: c. Antibiotic therapy for pneumonia caused by bacterial infections. Antibiotic therapy is not effective against viral infections.
Treatment for bronchopneumonia includes: d. Therapy treatment to loosen sputum for easier expectoration.
Types of pneumonia include: 3. Inflammation and accumulation of fluid and/or pus that is mild and may resolve (end) without medical attention called atypical pneumonia aka "walking pneumonia".
Types of pneumonia include: 4. Inflammation and accumulation of fluid and/or pus that develops as a complication called secondary pneumonia. Complications means a secondary pneumonia develops during a primary (1st) disease.
A dangerous secondary pneumonia is a complication of: influenza (flu).
Diagnosis of pneumonia is confirmed with: 1. CXR which stands for chest x-ray.
Diagnosis of pneumonia is confirmed with: 2. Sputum C+S which stands for sputum culture and sensitivity.
A culture and sensitivity (C+S) is a: microbiology test to grow the suspected antigen (pathogen) and determine the most effective medications.
Microbiology means: the study of small life.
Pneumonia or any other pathological condition that subsides (diminishes or disappears) is called: resolution.
PLEURISY: Pleurisy means inflammation of the pleural membranes aka pleuritis. Pleural membranes are protective linings surrounding the lungs.
Pleurisy (pleuritis) can be a complication of any pulmonary (lung) pathology (disease). The primary symptom of pleurisy (pleuritis) is a sharp stabbing thoracalgia (chest pain) during inspiration (inhalation) and coughing.
TUBERCULOSIS: Tuberculosis (TB) is primarily a pulmonary (lung) bacterial infection.
Infection means: entry and proliferation (rapid reproduction) of a pathogenic (disease creating) microorganism (microbe).
Untreated tuberculosis TB can spread to the: kidneys and/or brain and/or bone.
Tuberculosis is transmitted (spread) by: respiratory droplets created during ventilation (breathing) and/or coughing and/or sneezing.
Signs and symptoms of tuberculosis include: 1. Fatigue which means loss of energy.
Signs and symptoms of tuberculosis include: 2. Loss of weight.
Signs and symptoms of tuberculosis include: 3. Nocturnal diaphoresis which means night swats.
Signs and symptoms of tuberculosis include: 4. SOB which means shortness of breath.
Signs and symptoms of tuberculosis include: 5. A productive cough which means sputum (phlegm) is expectorated.
Signs and symptoms of tuberculosis include: 6. Thoracalgia which means chest pain.
Signs and symptoms of tuberculosis include: 7. Hemoptysis in advanced stage which means expectorating (coughing up) blood.
Those infected with tuberculosis (TB) can be asymptomatic which mean: no symptoms.
Exposure to tuberculosis (TB) can be confirmed with a titer which is a blood test to detect (show): tuberculin antibodies.
Diagnosis of tuberculosis is confirmed with: 1. CXR which stands for chest x-ray.
Diagnosis of tuberculosis is confirmed with: 2. Sputum C+S which stands for sputum culture and sensitivity.
Tuberculosis is very serious for those who are immunocompromised (weakened immune system such as: 1. Those with AIDS which stands for acquired immune deficiency syndrome.
Tuberculosis is very serious for those who are immunocompromised (weakened immune system such as: 2. Homeless.
Tuberculosis is very serious for those who are immunocompromised (weakened immune system such as: 3. Infected immigrants.
Treatment for tuberculosis includes: multiple antituberculin antibiotics administered for 4-9 months.
MDRTB stands for: multidrug resistant tuberculosis.
BROCHOGENIC CARCINOMA (BC): Bronchogenic carcinoma (BC) is a pulmonary (lung) malignancy commonly associated with cigarette smoking. Malignancy means ability to spread.
Bronchogenic carcinoma (BC) occurs more often in: men.
Bronchogenic carcinoma (BC) is the leading cause of: cancer (CA) mortality (death) in the US.
Signs and symptoms of bronchogenic carcinoma include: 1. Fatigue which means loss of energy.
Signs and symptoms of bronchogenic carcinoma include: 2. Anorexia which means no appetite.
Signs and symptoms of bronchogenic carcinoma include: 3. Loss of weight.
Signs and symptoms of bronchogenic carcinoma include: 4. Dyspnea which means difficult ventilation (breathing).
Signs and symptoms of bronchogenic carcinoma include: 5. Chronic (persistent) cough often called a "smoker's cough".
Signs and symptoms of bronchogenic carcinoma include: 6. Hemoptysis which means expectorating (coughing up) blood.
Diagnosis of bronchogenic carcinoma is confirmed with: 1. Bronchoscopy which means process of using a lighted instrument to view the bronchi (airways).
Diagnosis of bronchogenic carcinoma is confirmed with: 2. Bx which means biopsy.
Treatment for bronchogenic carcinoma includes: 1. Beams of intense energy called radiation therapy.
Treatment for bronchogenic carcinoma includes: 2. Antineoplastic therapy aka chemotherapy.
Surgical treatment for bronchogenic carcinoma includes: 1. Lobectomy which means surgical removal (excision) of the affected lobe.
Surgical treatment for bronchogenic carcinoma includes: 2. Pneumonectomy which means surgical (excision) of the affected lung.
The prognosis (Px) for BC is poor due to: early metastasis through the lymphatic system.
SUDDEN INFANT DEATH SYNDROME (SIDS): Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) is aka "crib death".
SIDS is idiopathic which means: unknown cause. SIDS is the major cause of mortality between ages of one month and one year.
SIDS risk increases with: 1. Premature infants which means born before 37 weeks of gestation (pregnancy).
SIDS risk increases with: 2. A birth weight less than 5.5 lbs.
SIDS risk increases with: 3. Multiple births which means more than 1 birth.
SIDS risk increases with: 4 . Infants born to teenagers.
SIDS risk increases with: 5. Women who consume alcohol (ETOH) and/or tobacco and/or drugs during gestation (pregnancy).
SIDS risk increases with: 6. Women who contract (acquire) a sexually transmitted disease (STD) during pregnancy (gestation)
SIDS risk increases with: 7. Women with deficient or absent prenatal care.
Methods to reduce the risk of SIDS include: 1. Placing the infant on their back to sleep.
Methods to reduce the risk of SIDS include: 2. Using a firm sleep surface with a fitted sheet.
Methods to reduce the risk of SIDS include: 3. Keeping the infant's sleeping area free of soft objects, toys or loose bedding.
Methods to reduce the risk of SIDS include: 4. Keeping the infant from overheating during sleep.
Methods to reduce the risk of SIDS include: 5. Not allowing the infant to sleep in an adult bed, chair, or couch.
Methods to reduce the risk of SIDS include: 6. Not exposing the infant to smoke.
Methods to reduce the risk of SIDS include: 7. Infant consumption of breast milk.
The most common cause of infant injury and death is ASSB which stands for: accidental suffocation and strangulation in bed.
Infants at high risk for sudden infant death syndrome are commonly prescribed: an apnea (no breathing) monitor.
Created by: bterrelonge