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TLOM chapter 10

The language of medicine 8th edition chapter 10 nervous system

QuestionAnswer
CNS is composed of? The brain and spinal cord
Efferent nerves carry impulses away from the CNS
Afferent nerves carry impulses towards the CNS
Two types of autonomic nerves sympathetic and parasympathetic
slows the body down which slows heart rate, lowers blood pressure, and stimulates peristalsis to clear the rectum. parasympathetic
stimulate the body in time of stress which increases heart rate, dilates airways, blood pressure goes up, stimulates the adrenal glands to secrete epinephrine, and slows digestion sympathetic
Ganglia group of cells or tissues that occur outside the brain and spinal cord
Ganglia singular ganglion
An individual nerve cell is a Neuron
Multiple sclerosis occurs when the myelin sheath is destroyed and replaced with plaque
blephar/o Eyelid
atel/o Incompleate
apoplexy Stroke
-lexia Word, phrase
-extra outside
What is CSF (Cerebrospinal Fluid) Fluid that circulates throughout the brain and spinal cord.
Dendrite Microscopic branching fiber of a nerve cell that is the first part to recieve the nervous impulse
Axon Microscopic fiber that carries the nervous impulse along a nerve cell
Astrocyte A type of glial (Neurologlial) cell that transports water and salts from capillaries.
Acetylcholine Neurotransmitter chemical released at the ends (synapses) of nerve cells.
Blood-brain barrier Blood vessels (capillaries) that selectively let certain substances enter the brain tissue and keep other substances out.
Arachnoid membrane Middle layer of the three membranes (meninges) that surround the brain and spinal cord
ANS (Autonomic Nervous system) Nerves that control involuntary body functions of muscles, glands and internal organs.
Brainstem Lower portion of the brain that connects the cerebrum with the spinal cord.
cauda equina Collection of spinal nerves below the end of the spinal cord.
Cell body Part of a nerve cell that contains the nucleus.
Cerebellum Posterior part of the brain that coordinates muscle movements and maintains balance.
Cerebral Cortex Outer region of the cerebrum; containing sheets of nerve cells;grey matter of the brain.
Cerebrum Largest part of the brain; responsible for voluntary muscular activity.
Cranial nerves 12 pairs of nerves that carry messages to and from the brain
Dura mater Thick, outermost layer of the meninges surrounding and protecting the brain and spinal cord
Ependymal cell A glial cell that lines membranes within the brain and spinal cord and helps form cerebrospinal fluid.
cerebell/o cerebellum
cerebr/o cerebrum
dur/o dura mater
encephal/o brain
gli/o glial cells
lept/o thin, slender
mening/o membranes, meninges
my/o muscle
myel/o spinal cord
neur/o nerve
pont/o pons
radicul/o nerve root
thalam/o thalamus
thec/o sheath(refers to the meninges)
vag/o vagus nerve (10th cranial nerve)
alges/o excessive sensitivity to pain
-algia pain
caus/o burning
comat/o deep sleep (coma)
esthesi/o feeling, nervous sensation
kines/o movement
-kinesia Movement
-lepsy seizure
lex/o word, phrase
-paresis weakness
-phasia speech
-plegia paralysis
-praxia action
-sthenia strength
syncop/o to cut off, cut short
tax/o order, coordination
Pons Part of the brain anterior to the cerebellum and between the medulla and the rest of the midbrain. It is a bridge connection various parts of the brain. (Latin pons means bridge)
hypothalamus portion of the brain beneath the thalamus; controls sleep, appetite, body temperature and secretions from the pituitary gland
medulla oblongata Part of the brain just above the spinal cord; controls breathing, heartbeat and the size of blood vessels; nerve fibers cross over here.
meninges Three protective membranes that surround the brain and spinal cord.
myelin sheath White fatty tissue that surrounds, and insulates the axon of a nerve cell. Myelin speeds impulse conduction along axons.
Nerve Macroscopic cordlike collection of fibers (axons and dendrites) that carry electrical impulses
neuron Nerve cell that carries impulses throughout the body
neurotransmitter Chemical messenger, released at the end of a nerve cell. It stimulates or inhibits another cell, chich can be a nerve cell, muscle cell of gland cell.
Peripheral nervous system Nerves outside the brain and spinal cord; cranial, spinal and autonomic nerves.
pia mater Thin, delicate inner membrane of the meninges.
Plexus Large, interlacing network of nerves. Examples are lumbosacral, cervical and crachial plexuses.
Receptor Organ that receives a nervous stimulation and passes it on to the nerves within the body. The skin, ears, eyes and taste buds are receptors.
Sensory nerves Carry messages to the brain and spinal cord from a receptor
Spinal nerves 31 pairs of nerves arising from the spinal cord. Each spinal nerve affects a particular area of the skin.
Stimulus (stimuli plural) Agent of change (light, sound and touch) in the internal or external environment that evokes a response.
stroma Connective and supporting tissue of an organ.Glial cells are the stromal tissue of the brain
sulcus (sulci plural) Depression or groove in the surface of the cerebral cortex
synapse Space through which a nervous impulse is transmitted from one neuron to another or from a neuron to another cell such as muscle or gland cell.
Thalamus Main relay center of the brain. It conducts impulses between the spinal cord and the cerebrum; incoming sensory messages are relayed through the thalamus to appropriate centers in the cerebrum.
Vagus nerve Tenth cranial nerve; its branches reach to the larynx, trachea, bronchi, lungs, aorta, esophagus and stomach.
Ventricals of the brain Canals in the brain that contain cerebrospinal fluid.
Hydrocephalus Abnormal accumulation for fluid(CSF) in the brain
Spina Bifida Congenital defects in the lumbar spinal column caused by imperfect union of vertebral parts.
Alzheimer disease Brain disorder marked by gradual and progressive mental deterioration (dementia) with personality changes and impairment of daily functioning.
Epilepsy Chronic brain disorder characterized by recurrent seizure activity
Multiple Sclerosis Destruction of the myelin sheath on neurons in the CNS and its replacement by plaques of sclerotic (hard) tissue
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) Degenerative disorder of motor neurons in the spinal cord and brainstem.
Huntington Disease Hereditary disorder marked by degenerative changes in the cerebrum leading to abrupt involuntary movements and mental deterioration
myasthenia gravis (MG) Autoimmune neuromuscular disorder characterized by weakness of voluntary muscles
Parkinsons Disease Degeneration of neurons in the basal ganglia, occurring in later life and leading to tremors, weakness of muscles and slowness of movement.
Palsy Paralysis(partial or compleate loss of moto function)
Tourette syndrome Involuntary, spasmodic, twitching movements; uncontrollable vocal sounds; and inappropriate words
Herpes Zoster (Shingles) Viral infection affecting peripheral nerves
Meningitis Inflammation of the meninges
Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)encephalopathy Brain disease and dementia occurring with AIDS
Brain tumor Abnormal growth of brain tissue and meninges.
cerebral concussion Temporary brain dysfunction ( brief loss of consciousness) after injury, usually clearing within 24 hours.
cerebral contusion Bruising of brain tissue as a result of direct trauma to the head; neurologic deficits persist longer then 24 hours
cerebrovascular accident (CVA) Disruption in the normal blood supply to the brain; stroke
meningi/o membranes, meninges
-kinesis movement
-kinetic Movement
-algesia excessive sensitivity to pain
-esthesia feeling, nervous sensation
kinesi/o movement
cerebrospinal fluid analysis Samples of CSF are examined
cerebral angiography X-Ray imaging of the arterial blood vessel system in the brain after injection of contrast material.
Computed tomography (CT) of the brain X-Ray technique that generates computerized cross-sectional images of the brain and spinal cord
myelography X-Ray imaging of the spinal canal after injection of contrast medium into the subarachnoid space
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain Magnetic and radio waves create an image of the brain in all three planes.
Positron emission tomography (PET) scan Computerized radiologic technique useing radioactive glucose to image the metabolic activity of cells.
Doppler/ultrasound studies Sound waves detect blood flow in the carotid and intracrania arteries.
Electroencephalography (EEG) Recording of the electrical activity of the brain
Lumbar puncture (LP) CSF is withdrawn from between two lumbar vertebrae
Stereotactic radiosurgery Use of a specialized instrument to locate and treat targets in the brain
AD Alzheimer disease
AFP Alpha-fetoprotein
ALS Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis- Lou Gehrig;s disease
meningi/o membranes, meninges
-kinesis movement
-kinetic Movement
-algesia excessive sensitivity to pain
-esthesia feeling, nervous sensation
kinesi/o movement
cerebrospinal fluid analysis Samples of CSF are examined
cerebral angiography X-Ray imaging of the arterial blood vessel system in the brain after injection of contrast material.
Computed tomography (CT) of the brain X-Ray technique that generates computerized cross-sectional images of the brain and spinal cord
myelography X-Ray imaging of the spinal canal after injection of contrast medium into the subarachnoid space
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain Magnetic and radio waves create an image of the brain in all three planes.
Positron emission tomography (PET) scan Computerized radiologic technique useing radioactive glucose to image the metabolic activity of cells.
Doppler/ultrasound studies Sound waves detect blood flow in the carotid and intracrania arteries.
Electroencephalography (EEG) Recording of the electrical activity of the brain
Lumbar puncture (LP) CSF is withdrawn from between two lumbar vertebrae
Stereotactic radiosurgery Use of a specialized instrument to locate and treat targets in the brain
AD Alzheimer disease
AFP Alpha-fetoprotein
ALS Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis- Lou Gehrig's disease
AVM Arteriovenous malformation
CNS Central nervous system
CSF Cerebrospinal fluid
CT Computed tomography
CVA Cerebrovascular accident
EEG Electroencephalography
GABA Gamma-aminobutyric acid (Neurotransmitter)
ICP Intracrainial pressure (normal pressure is 5 to 15 mm Hg)
LP Lumbar puncture
MAC Monitored anesthetic care
MG Myasthenia gravis
MRA Magnetic resonance angiography
MRI magnetic resonance imaging
MS Multiple sclerosis
1/2P Hemiparesis
PET Positron emission tomography
PSRS Proton stereotactic radiosurgery
Sz Seizure
TBI Traumatic brain injury
TENS Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulations
TIA Transient ischemic attack
tPA tissue plasminogen activator; a clot dissolving drug used as therapy for strokes
diencephalon highest portion of the brain stem
Created by: tracy337