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MT - Ch. 14

Essentials of Medical Terminology - Ch. 14

structures of the respiratory system nose & nasal cavity, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, lungs
external nares nostrils (allow both inspiration & expiration of air)
inhalation (inspiration) breathing in of air
exhalation (expiration) breathing out of air
cilia the hairs (in the nares filter out dust particles in the air)
nasal cavity extends from the external nares to the pharynx
nasal septum divide into the right and left cavities
paranasal sinuses hollow spaces with in skull (lie above, between, & under the eyes...frontal, ethmoidal, sphenoidal, maxillary sinus)
olfactory neurons (lining of the nasal tract) nasal cavity warms & moistens air & provides us with sense of smell
pharynx throat
pharynx consists nasopharynx, the oropharynx, & the laryngopharynx
nasopharynx posterior to the nasal cavity
nasopharynx contains internal nares opening into the nasal cavity & openings into the eustachian tube
oropharynx contsins tonsils
laryngopharynx opens into the larynx & esophagus
larynx voice box
adam's apple (portion of larynx) large shield of cartilage protecting inner structures
epiglottis is a flap that swings up & down o close off air passage during swallowing
vocal cords responsible for sound (are mucous membrane containing a slit called the glottis
vibration of vocal cords produces sound
trachea windpipe (connecting to the bronchi)
trachea consists of muscle & C-shape cartilage, lined with mucous membrane & cilia
in the lungs 2 primary bronchi divide into secondary & tertiary bronchi, which connect to bronchioles
lungs lie in the thoracic cavity
apex top of lung
base bottom of lung
blood vessels, nerves, bronchi, & lymph vessels form the root & enter at the hilum
right lung has superior, middle, & inferior lobes
left lung has superior & inferior lobes
respiratory bronchioles connected by alveolar ducts w/the alveoli (which are tiny balloons responsible for gas exchange w/ the pulmonary capillaries
pleural cavity surrounds the lungs
mediastinal cavity between the lungs
coni/o dust
oligo- scanty; few
adenoid/o adenoids
-ectomy excision
adenoidectomy excision of the adenoids
alveol/o alveolus; air sacs
-ar pertaining to
alveolar pertaining to the alveolous
alveolitis inflammation of the alveolus
bronchi/o; bronch/o bronchus
-ectasis dilation; stretching
bronchiectasis dilation of the bronchus
bronchitis inflammation of the bronchus
-or person or thing that does something
dilat/o dilation; widening
bronchodilator drugs used to dilate the bronchus to relieve bronchospasm
-scopy process of visual examination
bronchoscopy process of visually examing the bronchus
-spasm sudden, involuntary contraction
bronchospasm sudden, involuntary contraction of the bronchus
-genic produced by
carcinoma malignant tumor
bronchogenic carcinoma malignant tumor of the lung
bronchiol/o bronchiloles; little bronchi
bronchiolitis inflammation of the bronchioles
laryng/o larynx; voice box
-eal pertaining to
laryngeal pertaining to the voice box
laryngospasm sudden, involuntary contraction of the voice box
lob/o lobe
-ar pertaining to
lobar pertaining to the lobe of the lung
-ectomy excision; surgical removal
lobectomy excision of a lobe of the lung
muc/o mucus (sticky, thick secretion of mucous membrane)
-lytic breakdown; destruction; separate
mucolytic drugs used to break down thick mucus so it be coughed up
mucus is the noun
mucous is the adjective, as in mucous membrane
nas/o nose
lacrim/o lacrimal apparatus, tears
nasolacrimal pertaining to the nose & lacrimal apparatus
pharyng/o pharynx; throat
nasopharyngeal pertainng to the nasopharynx (portion of the pharynx located behind the nose)
-eal pertaining to
ox/o oxygen
-ia state of; condtion
a(n) no; not; lack of
anoxia lack of oxygen (interchangeably with hypoxia)
an- is used instead a-before component parts beginning with a vowel
hypoxia deficiency of oxygen
hypo- deficient; abnormal decrease
pector/o chest
pectoral pertaining to the chest
pharyng/o pharynx; throat
gloss/o tongue
pharyngoglossal pertaining to the pharynx & tongue
phren/o diaphragm
-ic pertaining to
phrenic pertaining to the diaphragm
-tomy process of cutting
phrenotomy process of cutting into the diaphragm
pleur/a; pleur/o pleura; pleural cavity
-algia pain
pleuralgia pain in the pleura
pneumat/o; pneum/o air; respiration; lungs
pneumatic pertaining to air or respiration
-osis abnormal condition
pneumoconiosis abnormal condition of dust in the lungs; black lung
pneumopleuritis inflammation of the lungs & pleura
pneumon/o; pulmon/o lungs
pneumonia inflammation of the lung (also known as pneumonitis)
-ia condition; state of
pulmonary pertaining to the lungs
-ary pertaining to
rhin/o nose
-logist specialist
otorhinolaryngologist specialist in the study of the structure, function, diseases, & treatment of the ears, nose & throat
ot/o ear
laryng/o voice box; larynx
otorhinolaryngology study of the ear, nose, & throat, including their structure, function, & diseases (ENT)
rhinitis inflammation of the mucous membrane of the nose
-rrhea discharge
rhinorrhea discharge from the nose
rhinoplasty surgical repair of the nose; plastic surgery on the nose for cosmetic or reconstructive purposes; nose job
sinus/o sinuses
pan- all
pansinusitis inflammation of all the paranasal sinuses
sinusotomy process of cutting into the sinsu
spir/o breathing
-meter instrument used to measure
spirometer instrument used to measure airflow & volume into & out of the lungs
spirometry process of measuring airflow & volume into & out of the lungs
steth/o chest
stethoscope instrument used to listen to chest scope
thorac/o chest
-centesis surgical puncture
thoracocentenis surgical punture to remove fluid from the pleural cavity (also known as thoracentesis, pleurocentesis, & pleuracentesis)
-dynia pain
thoracodynia chest pain
-plasty surgical reconstruction
thoracoplasty surgical reconstruction of the thorax
thoracotomy process of cutting into the chest
tonsill/o tonsils
tonsillar pertaining to the tonsils
tonsillectomy excision of the tonsils
tonsillitis inflammation of the tonsils
tonsillotome instrument used to cut the tonsils
trache/o trachea; windpipe
endo- within
endotracheal pertaining to within the trachea
laryngotracheobronchitis inflammation of the larynx, trachea, & bronchus; also known as croup
tracheoesophageal pertaining to the trachea & esophagus
-stomy new opening
tracheostomy new opening into the trachea is created through the neck & a tube is inserted to assist breathing (may be temporary or permanent)
-capnia carbon dioxide
hypercapnia excessive amounts of carbon dioxide in the blood
hypocapnia decreased amounts of carbon dioxide in the blood
-graphy process of recording; produce images
bronchography process of producing an image of the bronchi following injection of contrast medium
angi/o vessel
pulmonary angiography process of producing an image of the blood vessels of the lung following injection of contrast medium
pulmon/o lungs
-phonia voice
a- no; not; lack of
aphonia loss of voice
dys- difficult bad; painful
dysphonia difficulty in speaking
-pnea breathing
apnea no breathing
bradypnea slow breathing
dyspnea painful breathing
eupnea normal breathing
hyperpnea abnormal increase in depth & rate of breathing
oligo- scanty; few
oligopnea infrequent breathing resulting in a reduction of air entering the lungs
ortho- straight
orthopnea breathing only in the upright position
tachypnea fast breathing
-ptysis spitting
hemoptysis spitting up of blood
-thorax chest
hemothorax blood in the pleural cavity
hydr/o water
hydrothorax fluid in the pleural cavity
pneum/o air
pneumothorax collection of air in the pleural cavity
py/o pus
pyothorax pus in the pleural cavity
IRV inspiratory reserve of volume (test of pulmonary function)
Created by: ltravis