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Mesopotamia a wide, flat plain in present-day Iraq
Fertile Crescent a region of the Middle East that stretches in a large, crescent-shaped curve from the Persian gulf to the Mediterranean Sea
irrigate supply water to
city-state an independent state that includes a city and its surrounding territory
barter a trading system in which people exchange goods directly without money
import a good or service sold within a country that is produced in another country
export a good or service produced within a country and sold outside the country's borders
polytheism the belief in more than one god
ziggurat pyramid-shaped brick towers used as temples
cuneiform a system of writing that uses triangular-shaped symbols to stand for ideas or things
empire a state containing several countries or territories
rule of law the idea that all members of a society must obey the law
ally an independent state that works with other states to achieve a shared military or political goal
cultural trait an idea or way of doing things that is common in a certain culture
Hammurabi's Code a set of laws that governed life in the Babylonian empire
cavalry soldiers who fight while riding horses
tribute payment made to show loyalty to a stronger power
stele a carved stone or pillar that stands on end
standing army a permanent army of professional soldiers
monotheism the belief in one god
cultural diffusion the spreading of cultural traits from one region to another
canals artificial waterways constructed to allow the passage of boats or ships inland or to convey water for irrigation
dynasty a line of hereditary rulers of a country
demons evil spirits or devils
floodplain an area of low-lying ground adjacent to a river, formed mainly of river sediments and subject to flooding
monsters imaginary creatures that are typically large, ugly, and frightening
silt fine sand, clay, or other material carried by running water and deposited as a sediment
epic a poetic story, usually related to heroic deeds of a person of an unusual courage and unparalleled bravery
Tigris and Euphrates a major river system in western Asia that flows through Syria through Iraq and into the Persian Gulf
archetype a very typical example of a certain person or thing
dams barriers constructed to hold back water and raise its level, forming a reservoir used to generate electricity or as a water supply
Created by: ms_snyder