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HUM#2 Terms

Rococo through Realism

TermDefinition
opera A text based musical drama
aria An elaborate solo or duet to express feeling and emotion
recitative Dialogue speaking part, still sung but less of an emphasis on the melody. Imitates closely to the rhythms of speech
chorus The 'choir'. Or company of actors who comment on the action of the drama
castrato A male singer who was castrated before puberty in order to retain his high voice
Rococo The highly decorative and ornate style employed by the French court. Light assymetrical pastel colors. Love and pleasure. Intense, elaborate.
cartouche Elaborate frame around paintings. Delicate. In egypte it is reserved for the names of rulers and their wives.
philosophes The “philosophers” who dominated the intellectual life of the French Enlightenment and who frequented salons. aspired to establish a new social order of morals and ethics. Most were deists.
chinoiserie A term used to define the European taste for “all things Chinese.”
deism The brand of faith that argues that the basis of belief in God is reason and logic rather than revelation or tradition.
salon A room designed especially for social gatherings; later, also referred to the social gathering itself. Salonnieres were the women who hosted these gatherings.
Neoclassicism Expression of democracy. Replecating classical style of rome and greece.
three estates One of three traditional groups that comprised the Estates General in France. The First Estate was the clergy; the Second Estate was the nobility; and the Third Estate was the rest of the population, composed of the bourgeoisie and the peasants.
sublime Overwhelming emotion (ex. storms, mountains), large overwhelming.
picturesque Naturally occuring nice scene. Irregularities but they work (ex. cute little garden)
Hegelian dialectic The prevailing set of ideas, called the “thesis,” finds itself opposed by a conflicting set of ideas, the “antithesis.” This conflict resolves itself in a “synthesis,” which inevitably establishes itself as the new thesis.
Promethean hero A person who has done good by performing a rebellious act. Ex. Gericault and his painting "Medusa" of a shipwreck. Challeneged the authority.
idée fixée An idea that dominates one’s mind for a prolonged period
concert overture tradition of performing opera overtures in the concert hall and that consists of a single movement usually connected in some way with a narrative plot known to the audience.
lieder Songs, generally written for solo voice and piano.
étude In music, a study that addresses particular technical challenges.
polonaise A stylized version of the Polish dance.
positivism every rationally justifiable assertion can be scientifically verified or is capable of logical or mathematical proof, and that therefore rejects metaphysics and theism.
proletariat A class of workers lacking ownership of the means of production (tools and equipment) and control over both the quality and price of their own work.
bourgeoisie Middle-class merchants, shopkeepers, and businessmen.
socialism a political and economic theory of social organization which advocates that the means of production, distribution, and exchange should be owned or regulated by the community as a whole.
lithography Literally “stone writing,” this printing process depends on the fact that oil and water do not mix. The process of printing from a flat surface treated so as to repel the ink except where it is required for printing.
daguerrotype A photographic process developed in the early 1800s that yielded a positive image on a polished metal plate; named after one of its two inventors, Louis-Jacques-Mandé Daguerre.
calotype An early photographic process in which sensitized paper, exposed for a few seconds, holds a latent image that is brought out and developed by dipping the paper in gallic acid.
photography New invention to get images, rather than painting. Not as detailed as a painting could be.
Haussmannization The term used to describe Baron Haussmann’s approach to urban redevelopment, including the mass destruction of working-class neighborhoods. Widen streets so people can't make barricades. Helped with traffic control and air flow.
places-carrefours a crossroads. a public square, plaza, or marketplace where roads converge.
grands boulevards a wide street in a town or city, typically one lined with trees.
flâneur A French version of the aristocratic English dandy. A man-about-town, with no apparent occupation, strolling the city, studying and experiencing it dispassionately. Lounger
Paris Salon the official exhibition of the French Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture
Naturalism In art, representations that imitate the reality in appearance of natural objects. In art, representations that imitate the reality in appearance of natural objects.
avant-garde this military term is used to describe artists and other creative groups on the cutting edge. expirimental and unusual ideas
leitmotif In opera, a brief musical idea connected to a character, event, or idea that recurs throughout the work. music that signals a specific character (darth vader theme song). Used by Wagner
Gesamtkunstwerk A total work of art, one that synthesizes music, drama, poetry, gesture, architecture, and painting. Total work of art - what you see but also what you hear. Used by Wagner
Crystal Palace a structure of prefabricated iron units, glass, and wood, built in London to house the Exhibition of 1851
Great Exhibition took place in Hyde Park, London. It was the first in a series of World's Fairs, exhibitions of culture and industry that became popular
opera seria "serious opera", emphasizing virtuoso singing, featuring themes from ancient history and mythology
opera buffa comic opera featuring every day characters
dramma giocoso "comic drama". Combine both opera seria and opera buffa styles
symphony A musical composition typically consisting of a first movement played in a fast tempo (allegro); a second movement that is slow (adagio or andante); a third that picks up the pace again; and a fourth that is generally allegro again, spirited and lively.
Beautiful human-made, tidy, organized, under human control, well-balanced
exposition 2 principal melodies, easy to hum, not super elaborate
sonata form A kind of small form within the larger symphonic form. Consisting of exposition, development, recapitulation and coda
development Variations on the principal melody, different keys, etc
recapitulation Return to principal key and melody
coda The concluding section
coup d'etat a sudden, violent, and illegal seizure of power from a government.
Created by: sara_hillyer