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Infection Control

TermDefinition
microorganism small, living organism that is not visible to the naked eye
nonpathogens microorganisms that are a part of the normal flora of the body and are beneficial in maintaining certain body processes
pathogens microorganisms that cause infection and disease
aerobic microorganisms that require oxygen to live
anaerobic microorganisms that live and reproduce in the absence of oxygen
bacteria simple, one-celled organisms that mulitply rapidly
protozoa one celled animal like organisms often found in decayed materials, animals, bird feces, and contaminated water
fungi simple plantlike organisms that live on dead organic matter such as yeasts, can cause ring worm or athlete's foot
rickettsiae parasitic microorganisms that are commonly found on fleas, lice, ticks, and mites
viruses smallest microorganisms, visible only using an electron microscope
helminths multicellular parasitic organisms commonly called worms or flukes
Endogenous infection or disease originates inside the body
exogenous infection or disease originates outside the body
nosocomial hospital-acquired or healthcare assoicated infection, acquired by a pateint in a health care facility
opportunistic infections that occur when the body's defenses (immune system) are weak
chain of infection these 6 links or conditions must be met for disease to occur and spread from one individual to another
infectious agent a germ (pathogen) that can cause a disease or illness
reservoir area where the infectious agent can live (human body, animals, objects)
portal of exit the path in which the infectious agent leaves the reservoir in which it has been growing
mode of transmission the way the infectious agent can be transmitted to another reservoir or host where it can live (transmitted directly or indirectly)
portal of entry a way the infectious agent enters a new host (immune systems determines whether or not the body accepts the germ)
susceptible host a person likely to get an infection or disease, usually because the body defenses are weak
sterile free from all organisms including spores and viruses
contaminated means that organisms and pathogens are present
antisepsis prevents or inhibits growth of pathogenic organisms
disinfection process that destroys or kills pathogenic organisms not always effective against spores and viruses
sterilization a process that destroys all microorganisms including spores and viruses (example autoclave)
bioterrorism the use of microorganisms, or bioogic agens, as weapons to infect humans, animals, or plants
standard precautions rules developed by the CDC to prevent the spread of infection
sharps containers red container used to dispose of needles, scalpel, etc
biohazard red bag used to dispose any biohazardous waste, example contaminated dressings from wounds, bloody gloves, soiled bandages
Created by: amy.ellis