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A&PCh18

Autonomic Nervous System

QuestionAnswer
What does the autonomic nervous system control? Cardiac muscle, Certain glands, Smooth muscle
How many neurons are in the motor pathway of the autonomic nervous system? There are two neurons in the relay
Where is the cell body of a preganglionic neuron of the ANS? CNS
List 3 facts about a preganglionic neuron? It has its cell body in the brain or spinal cord. It has its axon exiting the CNS with a cranial or spinal nerve. It has myelinated axons
A postganglionic neuron: Releases neurotransmitter at the effector cell
These normally have the shortest preganglionic axons. Sympathetic ganglia
List 3 things the sympathetic division of the ANS can do: Synapse with blood vessels, Short preganglionic neurons, Thoracolumbar output
Describes an effector innervated by both the Parasympathetic and Sympathetic divisions? Dual innervation
Parts of the prevertebral ganglia? Superior mesenteric ganglion, Celiac ganglion, Inferior mesenteric ganglion
Examples of terminal ganglia? Pterygopalatine ganglion, Submandibular ganglion, Otic ganglion
These are structures containing sympathetic preganglionic axons that connect the anterior ramus of the spinal nerve with the ganglia of the sympathetic trunk. White rami communicantes
These send postganglionic axons to the parotid salivary gland. Otic ganglia
Neurotransmitters bind to autonomic receptors? Norepinephrine and acetylcholine
Acetylcholine is released by _____________postganglionic neurons and is removed______than norepinephrine. Parasympathetic and faster
Autonomic tone is regulated by Hypothalamus
Caused by the parasympathetic division. Decreased heart rate, Decreased pupil diameter, and Increased digestion, Decrease in airway diameter
Causes the longer lasting and more widespread sympathetic effects, compared to the parasympathetic division. Greater divergence of sympathetic motor pathways, Acetylcholine is more rapidly removed from the synapse, Increased norepinephrine also comes from the adrenal gland
Responses is caused by the sympathetic division. Increased heart rate, Decreased blood flow to kidneys and gastrointestinal tract, Increased blood flow to skeletal and cardiac muscle, liver and fat
When comparing the somatic and autonomic nervous systems, a neurotransmitter in the somatic division always produces which type of action on the effector? Excitatory
What are the two main branches of the autonomic nervous system? Sympathetic and parasympathetic
Polygraph testing is based on the fact that the autonomic nervous system is, for the most part, Involuntary
A single sympathetic preganglionic axon may synapse with how many postganglionic neurons? Twenty or more
Which of the following is a characteristic sympathetic response? Sympathetic responses can affect organs throughout the body almost simultaneously
In comparing norepinephrine and acetylcholine, what is a major difference between them? The effects of norepinephrine are longer lasting and more widespread than acetylcholine
Craniosacral is another term for which nervous system division division? Parasympathetic
Dilated pupils, rapid heart rate, increased blood pressure, dilated airways, and release of glucose by the liver are examples of the responses of which division of the nervous system? Sympathetic
What is the correct order of the components of an autonomic reflex arc? Receptor, sensory neuron, integrating center, motor neuron, and effector
What is the major control and integration center of the autonomic nervous system? Hypothalamus
Whats monitored by autonomic sensory neurons? Blood pressure, Carbon dioxide levels in blood, Stretching of the walls of visceral organs
Which nervous system is in charge of Rest and digest? parasympathetic nervous system
Which nervous system is in charge of Conserve body energy? parasympathetic nervous system
Which nervous system is in charge of Fight or flight? sympathetic nervous system