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A&PCh16

Spinal Cord & Spinal Nerves

QuestionAnswer
This bulge in the lower or inferior spinal cord results from nerves to and from the lower limbs: Lumbar enlargement
This is the mass of nerve roots from the lumbar, sacral and coccygeal regions of the spinal cord: Cauda equina
This is a string like inferior extension of the pia mater that anchors the spinal cord to the coccyx: Filum terminale
This contains only the axons of motor neurons in the anterior horn that conduct nerve impulses from the CNS to effectors (muscles and glands). Anterior root
What is the name of the innermost layer of connective tissue that surrounds each individual axon in a spinal nerve? Endoneurium
Which type of axons are surrounded by endoneurium? Both myelinated and unmyelinated
What do the spinal nerves do? They connect the CNS to the body They are part of the PNS They are named according to the region of the cord from which they emerge
Where are the intercostal nerves found? They are found in the T2-T12 area of the vertebrae
This branch of a spinal nerve serves the deep muscles and skin of the dorsal surface of the trunk. Posterior ramus
Which sensory neurons conduct impulses from somatic receptors into the spinal cord or brainstem? First-order
Which sensory neurons conduct impulses from the thalamus to primary somatosensory cortex? Third-order
These tracts carry nerve impulses for proprioception: Posterior column-medial lemniscus pathway
These tracts carry nerve impulses for pain and temperature:All s Anterolateral pathway
This pathway conveys nerve impulses that originate in the cerebral cortex and are destined to cause precise, voluntary movements of skeletal muscles. Direct motor pathway
This pathway governs automatic movements and coordinates them with visual stimuli. Indirect pathway
What is the main function of a muscle spindle? Measure how much a muscle is being stretched
Which of the following parts of a reflex arc responds to a specific stimulus? Sensory receptor
Which of the following parts of a reflex arc responds to the motor nerve impulse? Effector
In response to being stretched, a muscle spindle generates nerve impulses that propagate along a sensory neuron through which structure to get into the spinal column? Posterior root
In response to a muscle being overstretched, a muscle spindle generates a somatic spinal reflex that, ultimately, causes what response? Both contraction of the agonist muscle and relaxation of the antagonist muscle.
What function do the stretch and tendon spinal reflexes provide? Awareness of muscle tension in body, Maintenance of muscle tone, and Prevention of damage to muscles
How many connective tissue meninges cover the spinal cord (and brain)? 3
Which of the three spinal meninges is the most superficial? Dura mater
Which is the middle of the three spinal meninges? Arachnoid mater
Denticulate ligaments are thickenings of: Pia mater
Which of the three spinal meninges is the deepest and covers the surface of the spinal cord and brain? Pia mater
Which of the below contains cerebrospinal fluid? Subarachnoid space
This bulge in the upper or superior spinal cord results from nerves to and from the upper limbs: Cervical enlargement
This is the name of the inferior tapering end of the spinal cord: Conus medullaris
This contains only sensory axons that conduct nerve impulses from sensory receptors in the skin, muscles and internal organs into the CNS. Posterior root
What is the name of the outermost layer of connective tissue surrounding the entire spinal nerve? Epineurium
What is the name of the spinal nerve branch that reenters the vertebral cavity through the intervertebral foramen and supplies the vertebrae, ligaments and blood vessels of the spinal cord and meninges? Meningeal branch
Another term for the thoracic nerves is: Intercostal
Which sensory neurons conduct impulses from the spinal cord or brainstem to the thalamus? Second-order
These white matter tracts of the spinal cord contain ascending information: Sensory tracts
Another name for the Anterolateral pathway Spinothalamic pathway
What type of information is carried along the descending tracts of the spinal cord? Motor
What is the name of the proprioceptors in skeletal muscles? Muscle spindles
How does a Golgi Tendon Organ work? Tension on the tendon activates the organ to send nerve impulses into the CNS
Which part of a reflex arc would have a cell body in the posterior root (ganglion)? Sensory neuron
During a somatic spinal reflex, when one effector muscle is stimulated and the opposing muscle is inhibited, this type of inhibition is called: Reciprocal
In response to excessive tension on a tendon, a tendon organ generates a somatic spinal reflex that, ultimately, causes what response? Both contraction of the antagonist muscle and relaxation of the agonist muscle.
What is the other name of the flexor reflex? Withdrawal reflex
An ipsilateral and intersegmental spinal somatic reflex Controls many flexor and extensor muscles on one side of the body
Which term describes paralysis of both lower limbs? Paraplegia
Which term describes paralysis of all four limbs? Quadriplegia
Because they contain both sensory and motor axons, spinal nerves are considered to be ___________nerves mixed
The 5 components of a reflex arc, in order from the beginning to the end are Sensory receptor, sensory neuron, integrating center, motor neuron, and effector
List the response of the body if your finger is pricked S=Sensory SC=Spinal Cord SN= Spinal Nerve S receptor activated by stimulus, S neuron relays impulse to SC, thru post(dorsal) root SN, integrating centers interpret impulses then generate motor impulses, impulses travel through anterior (ventral) root of SN, motor impulse reach M hand withdraws
The tracts of the posterior column are involved in Proprioception, touch, pressure, and vibration
Corticospinal is a Motor tract
Cutting the posterior root of the spinal nerve would interfere with the flow of sensory impulses
The spinothalmic tracts convey impulses for sensing pain, temperature, touch and deep pressure
Indirect pathways convey nerve impulses that program automatic movements, help coordinate body movements with visual stimuli, maintain skeletal muscle tone and posture, and contribute to equilibrium
Direct pathways are motor pathways
This acts as a feed back mechanism to control muscle length by causing muscle contraction, a reflex resulting in the contraction of a skeletal muscle when it is stretched, and maintains proper muscle tone Stretch reflex
Receptor that monitors changes in muscle length. Muscle spindle
A balance maintaining reflex. Crossed extensor reflex
Operates as a feedback mechanism to control muscle tension by causing muscle relaxation when muscle force becomes too extreme, and protects the tendon and muscle from damage due to excessive tension Tendon reflex
Reflex arc that consists of one sensory and one motor neuron Monosynaptic reflex
Sensory impulses enter on one side of the spinal cord and motor impulses exit on the opposite side Contralateral reflex arc
Occurs when sensory nerve impulse travels up and down the spinal cord, thereby activating several motor neurons and more than one effector Intersegmental reflex arc
Polysynaptic reflex initiated in response to painful stimulus Flexor (withdrawal) reflex
Receptor that monitors changes in muscle tension Tendon(Golgi tendon) organ
Reflex pathway that contains sensory neurons, interneurons, and motor neurons Polysynaptic reflex
Motor nerve impulses exit the spinal cord on the same side that sensory impulses entered the spinal cord Ipsilateral reflex arc
A neural circuit that coordinates body movements by causing contraction of one muscle and relaxation of antagonistic muscles or relaxation of a muscle and contraction of the antagonists. Reciprocal innervation
Spinal nerve branches that serve the deep muscles and skin of the posterior surface of the trunk Posterior(dorsal) ramus
Spinal nerve branches that serve the muscles and structures of the upper and lower limbs and the lateral and ventral trunk Anterior (ventral) ramus
Contains motor neuron axons and conducts impulses from the spinal cord to the peripheral organs and cells Anterior (ventral) root
Avascular covering of spinal cord composed of delicate collagen fibers and some elastic fibers Arachnoid mater
Contains sensory neuron axons and conducts impulses from the peripheral receptors into the spinal cord Posterior(dorsal) root
Superficial spinal cord covering of dense, irregular connective tissue Dura mater
An extension of the pia mater that anchors the spinal cord to the coccyx Filum terminale
Extending the length of the spinal cord, these pia mater thickenings fuse with the arachnoid mater and dura mater and help to protect the spinal cord from shock and sudden displacement Denticulate ligaments
Thin transparent connective tissue composed of interlacing bundles of collagen fibers and some elastic fibers adhering to the spinal cord's surface Pia mater
Space within the spinal cord filled with cerebrospinal fluid Central canal
Spinal nerve branch that supplies vertebrae, vertebral ligaments, blood vessels of the spinal cord, and meninges Meningeal branch
 

 



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