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A&PCh16

Spinal Cord & Spinal Nerves

QuestionAnswer
This bulge in the lower or inferior spinal cord results from nerves to and from the lower limbs: Lumbar enlargement
This is the mass of nerve roots from the lumbar, sacral and coccygeal regions of the spinal cord: Cauda equina
This is a string like inferior extension of the pia mater that anchors the spinal cord to the coccyx: Filum terminale
This contains only the axons of motor neurons in the anterior horn that conduct nerve impulses from the CNS to effectors (muscles and glands). Anterior root
What is the name of the innermost layer of connective tissue that surrounds each individual axon in a spinal nerve? Endoneurium
Which type of axons are surrounded by endoneurium? Both myelinated and unmyelinated
What do the spinal nerves do? They connect the CNS to the body They are part of the PNS They are named according to the region of the cord from which they emerge
Where are the intercostal nerves found? They are found in the T2-T12 area of the vertebrae
This branch of a spinal nerve serves the deep muscles and skin of the dorsal surface of the trunk. Posterior ramus
Which sensory neurons conduct impulses from somatic receptors into the spinal cord or brainstem? First-order
Which sensory neurons conduct impulses from the thalamus to primary somatosensory cortex? Third-order
These tracts carry nerve impulses for proprioception: Posterior column-medial lemniscus pathway
These tracts carry nerve impulses for pain and temperature:All s Anterolateral pathway
This pathway conveys nerve impulses that originate in the cerebral cortex and are destined to cause precise, voluntary movements of skeletal muscles. Direct motor pathway
This pathway governs automatic movements and coordinates them with visual stimuli. Indirect pathway
What is the main function of a muscle spindle? Measure how much a muscle is being stretched
Which of the following parts of a reflex arc responds to a specific stimulus? Sensory receptor
Which of the following parts of a reflex arc responds to the motor nerve impulse? Effector
In response to being stretched, a muscle spindle generates nerve impulses that propagate along a sensory neuron through which structure to get into the spinal column? Posterior root
In response to a muscle being overstretched, a muscle spindle generates a somatic spinal reflex that, ultimately, causes what response? Both contraction of the agonist muscle and relaxation of the antagonist muscle.
In response to being stretched, a muscle spindle generates nerve impulses that propagate along a sensory neuron through which structure to get into the spinal column? Posterior root
In response to a muscle being overstretched, a muscle spindle generates a somatic spinal reflex that, ultimately, causes what response? Both contraction of the agonist muscle and relaxation of the antagonist muscle.
What function do the stretch and tendon spinal reflexes not provide? Protection of spinal nerves
How many connective tissue meninges cover the spinal cord (and brain)? 3
Which of the three spinal meninges is the most superficial? Dura mater
Which is the middle of the three spinal meninges? Arachnoid mater
Denticulate ligaments are thickenings of: Pia mater
Which of the three spinal meninges is the deepest and covers the surface of the spinal cord and brain? Pia mater
Which of the below contains cerebrospinal fluid? Subarachnoid space
This bulge in the upper or superior spinal cord results from nerves to and from the upper limbs: Cervical enlargement
This is the name of the inferior tapering end of the spinal cord: Conus medullaris
This contains only sensory axons that conduct nerve impulses from sensory receptors in the skin, muscles and internal organs into the CNS. Posterior root
What is the name of the outermost layer of connective tissue surrounding the entire spinal nerve? Epineurium
What is the name of the spinal nerve branch that reenters the vertebral cavity through the intervertebral foramen and supplies the vertebrae, ligaments and blood vessels of the spinal cord and meninges? Meningeal branch
Another term for the thoracic nerves is: Intercostal
Which sensory neurons conduct impulses from the spinal cord or brainstem to the thalamus? Second-order
These white matter tracts of the spinal cord contain ascending information: Sensory tracts
Another name for the Anterolateral pathway Spinothalamic pathway
What type of information is carried along the descending tracts of the spinal cord? Motor
What is the name of the proprioceptors in skeletal muscles? Muscle spindles
How does a Golgi Tendon Organ work? Tension on the tendon activates the organ to send nerve impulses into the CNS
Which part of a reflex arc would have a cell body in the posterior root (ganglion)? Sensory neuron
During a somatic spinal reflex, when one effector muscle is stimulated and the opposing muscle is inhibited, this type of inhibition is called: Reciprocal
In response to excessive tension on a tendon, a tendon organ generates a somatic spinal reflex that, ultimately, causes what response? Both contraction of the antagonist muscle and relaxation of the agonist muscle.
What is the other name of the flexor reflex? Withdrawal reflex
An ipsilateral and intersegmental spinal somatic reflex Controls many flexor and extensor muscles on one side of the body
Which term describes paralysis of both lower limbs? Paraplegia
Which term describes paralysis of all four limbs? Quadriplegia