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Nervous Tissue

The resting membrane potential in neurons is about 70 mV
Threshold for an action potential (nerve impulse) in neurons is about -55 mV
Which channels open at threshold depolarization? Voltage-gated sodium channels
How is the nervous system organized into divisions? It is organized into a central nervous system and a peripheral nervous system
The motor portion of the autonomic nervous system includes Both sympathetic division and parasympathetic division
This type of neuron has many dendrites and one axon. Multipolar neuron
Which axons do Schwann cells myelinate? Most axons in the peripheral nervous system
Which type of channel is opened in response to a change in membrane potential, and are used to generate and conduct action potentials in neurons? Voltage-gated channel
What is a feature of larger-diameter axons? They conduct faster nerve impulses than small-diameter axons
Which axons have the smallest diameter? C fibers
What happens after calcium (Ca2+) enters the synaptic end bulb? It triggers the release of neurotransmitter molecules from the terminal
Name an important excitatory neurotransmitter in the CNS? Glutamate
Analyzing sensory input and making decisions about responses is which function of the nervous system? Integrative function
Subdivisions of the peripheral nervous system include Somatic, autonomic, enteric
What tissues are supplied by the autonomic nervous system? Cardiac muscle, smooth muscle and glands
Which of the following is called the brain of the gut? Enteric nervous system
This type of neuron has one main dendrite and one axon. Bipolar neuron
This type of neuron has many dendrites and one axon. Multipolar neuron
What is a myelin? It is a lipid and protein layering around most axons
What is the role of myelin? It increases the speed of nerve impulses
This part of the central nervous system contains neuronal cell bodies, dendrites, unmyelinated axons, axon terminals and neuroglia Gray matter
saltatory conduction The impulse appears to leap from node to node as each nodal area depolarizes to threshold
Which axons have the largest diameter? A fibers
What happens when a nerve impulse reaches the synaptic end bulb of a presynaptic axon? Voltage-gated calcium channels open
What happens to neurotransmitter molecules after they are released from the presynaptic terminal? They bind to neurotransmitter receptors in the postsynaptic cell
When a postsynaptic neuron depolarizes, the effect is Excitatory
Which of the following is an important inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain? GABA
Where is one region in the adult human CNS where new neurons are produced? Hippocampus
Where does repair of damaged axons occur? In the PNS