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A&PCh15

Nervous Tissue

QuestionAnswer
The resting membrane potential in neurons is about -70 mV
Threshold for an action potential (nerve impulse) in neurons is about -55 mV
Which channels open at threshold depolarization? Voltage-gated sodium channels
How is the nervous system organized into divisions? It is organized into a central nervous system and a peripheral nervous system
The motor portion of the autonomic nervous system includes Both sympathetic division and parasympathetic division
This type of neuron has many dendrites and one axon. Multipolar neuron
Which axons do Schwann cells myelinate? Most axons in the peripheral nervous system
Which type of channel is opened in response to a change in membrane potential, and are used to generate and conduct action potentials in neurons? Voltage-gated channel
What is a feature of larger-diameter axons? They conduct faster nerve impulses than small-diameter axons
Which axons have the smallest diameter? C fibers
What happens after calcium (Ca2+) enters the synaptic end bulb? It triggers the release of neurotransmitter molecules from the terminal
Name an important excitatory neurotransmitter in the CNS? Glutamate
Analyzing sensory input and making decisions about responses is which function of the nervous system? Integrative function
Subdivisions of the peripheral nervous system include Somatic, autonomic, enteric
What tissues are supplied by the autonomic nervous system? Cardiac muscle, smooth muscle and glands
Which of the following is called the brain of the gut? Enteric nervous system
This type of neuron has one main dendrite and one axon. Bipolar neuron
This type of neuron has many dendrites and one axon. Multipolar neuron
What is a myelin? It is a lipid and protein layering around most axons
What is the role of myelin? It increases the speed of nerve impulses
This part of the central nervous system contains neuronal cell bodies, dendrites, unmyelinated axons, axon terminals and neuroglia Gray matter
saltatory conduction The impulse appears to leap from node to node as each nodal area depolarizes to threshold
Which axons have the largest diameter? A fibers
What happens when a nerve impulse reaches the synaptic end bulb of a presynaptic axon? Voltage-gated calcium channels open
What happens to neurotransmitter molecules after they are released from the presynaptic terminal? They bind to neurotransmitter receptors in the postsynaptic cell
When a postsynaptic neuron depolarizes, the effect is Excitatory
Which of the following is an important inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain? GABA
Where is one region in the adult human CNS where new neurons are produced? Hippocampus
Where does repair of damaged axons occur? In the PNS
The Central Nervous system (CNS) is composed of the brain and spinal cord
Somatic nervous system includes motor neurons to skeletal muscle
The peripheral nervous system(PNS) includes cranial and spinal nerves
The autonomic nervous system includes parasympathetic and sympathetic divisions
Damage to dendrites would interfere with a neuron's ability to receive input
The type of cell that produces myelin sheaths around the axons in the CNS is the oligodendrocyte
A bundle of axons in the CNS is a tract
The depolarizing phase of a nerve impulse is caused by a rush of Na+ into the neuron
Saltatory conduction occurs at the nodes of Ranvier
Which neurotransmitter inhibits amino acid in the CNS GABA
A gaseous neurotransmitter that is not packaged into synaptic vesicles Nitric Acid
Which neurotransmitter is a body's natural pain killer Endorphins
Which neurotransmitter is a excitatory amino acid in the CNS Glutamate
Which neurotransmitter helps regulate mood Serotonin
The neurotransmitter that activates skeletal muscle fibers Acetylcholine
The portion of a neuron containing the nucleus Cell body
The rounded structure at the distal end of an axon terminal Synaptic end bulb
The highly branched, input part of a neuron Dendrites
The sac in which neurotransmitter is stored Synaptic vesicle
Neuron located entirely within the CNS Interneuron
The long, cylindrical process that conducts impulses toward another neuron Axon
Produces myelin sheath in PNS Schwann cell
Unmyelinated gap in the myelin sheath Mode of Ranvier
The substance that increases the speed of nerve impulse conduction Myelin sheath
Neuron that conveys information from a receptor to the CNS Sensory neuron
The neuron that conveys information from the CNS to an effector Motor neuron
Bundle of many axons in the PNS Nerve
Bundle of many axons in the CNS Tract
Group of cell bodies in the PNS Ganglion
Group of cell bodies in the CNS Nucleus
Substance used for communication at chemical synapses Neurotransmitter
 

 



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