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Muscular Tissue

How many different types of muscle tissue are there? 3
Major function of muscle tissue? Stopping the movement of joints Moving blood throughout the body Generating heat through contractions
This is a band of connective tissue that surrounds an entire muscle. Epimysium
The cylindrical structures that extend along the entire length of a muscle fiber are: Myofibrils
The thick filaments of a sarcomere consist of: Myosin
What slides past what during muscle contraction? Thin filaments slide past thick filaments
This consists of a somatic motor neuron plus all the skeletal muscle fibers it stimulates. Motor unit
The neurotransmitter released from synaptic end bulbs after arrival of a nerve impulse is: Acetylcholine
What ingredients are needed for muscle contraction? ATP and Ca2+
The sequence that muscle action potentials must go through to excite a muscle cell are: Axon of neuron, sarcolemma, T tubules, sarcoplasmic reticulum
Where is ATP split to energize contraction of a sarcomere? At the myosin heads
Creatine phosphate and ATP together create enough energy for a muscle to contract for 15 Seconds
Aerobic respiration requires? It requires oxygen and mitochondria
The brief delay between application of a stimulus and the beginning of contraction is called the: Latent period
Increasing the number of active motor units is called: Motor unit recruitment
In an isometric contraction, the muscle develops tension but does not: Shorten
Hypertrophy is: An increase in the size of muscle fibers
Which of the following exhibits autorhythmicity? Cardiac muscle fibers
Smooth muscle tone is due to the prolonged presence of what in the cytosol? Calcium ions
Between the ages of 30-50,about ______of muscle mass has been lost 10%
How much of the total body weight of the average adult is muscle tissue? 40-50%
Which type of muscle tissue is nonstriated and involuntary? Smooth
This is the property of muscle that gives it the ability to stretch without damage. Extensibility
This is a band of connective tissue that surrounds fascicles of muscle fibers within a muscle. Perimysium
For every nerve that penetrates a skeletal muscle there are general how many arteries and veins? One artery and one or two veins
The basic functional units of striated muscle fibers are: Sarcomeres
What regulatory proteins can be found on an actin molecule? Tropomyosin and Troponin
In the sliding filament mechanism, the thin filament is being pulled towards the Center of the sarcomere
Axon terminal clusters at the ends of neuromuscular junctions are referred to as: Synaptic end bulbs
The signal to excite a muscle cell must cross the neuromuscular junction by the diffusion of acetylcholine across the: Synaptic cleft
This part of the skeletal muscle cell releases calcium when stimulated by the T tubules. Terminal cisterns of sarcoplasmic reticulum
The sarcoplasmic reticulum is used for storing: Ca2+
What energizes the myosin head? ATP hydrolysis reaction
True or False. Transfer of energy from creatine phosphate to ADP, anaerobic cellular respiration, and aerobic cellular respiration are all processes by which muscles produce ATP. true
Lactic acid is created during: Anaerobic respiration
This is a brief contraction of all muscle fibers in a motor unit in response to a single action potential. Twitch contraction
A sustained contraction that is stimulated at a rate higher than 80 to 100 times per second, is called: Tetanus
Example of white fibers? Fast glycolytic fibers
Involuntary and often painful contractions of muscles are called: Spasms
Muscle spindles are supplied by: Gamma motor neurons
Which muscle fibers are joined by intercalated discs? Cardiac muscle fibers
The muscle tissue found in many internal organs and blood vessels is: Smooth muscle
When connective tissue extends as a broad flat layer, the tendon is referred to as Aponeurosis
Which of the following are the proprioceptors that monitor the changes in the length of skeletal muscles? Muscle spindles
The characteristic of muscular tissue that allows it to return to its original shape after contraction Elasticity
Wraps an entire muscle Epimysium
Lies immediately under the skin subcutaneous layer
Seperates muscle organs into functional groups Fascia
Surrounds each individual muscle fiber Endomysium
Divides Muscle fibers into fascicles Perimysium
Network of tubules that stores calcium Sarcoplasmic reticulum
Pigment that stores oxygen Myoglobin
Composed of myosin Thick filament
Composed of actin, tropomyosin, and troponin Thin filaments
Tunnel-like extensions of sarcolemma Transverse tubules
The sarcolemma is the equivalent of the Plasma membrane
During weight lifting training your skeletal muscles will obtain energy (ATP) primarily through Anaerobic cellular respiration
When ATP in the sacroplam is exhausted, the muscle must rely on ____________to quickly produce more ATP from ADP for contraction. Creatine phosphate
A motor unit consists of A motor neuron, and all the muscle fibers it stimulates.
Thick filaments have myosin heads (cross-bridges) used for the power stroke.
The substance that prevents the continuous stimulation of a muscle fiber is Acetylcholinesterase
The order of skeletal muscle contraction Acetylcholine released from axon terminal, action potential travels into transverse tubules, sacroplasmic reticulum releases Ca2+, Ca2+ combines with troponin, energized myosin heads attach to actin,thin filaments slide toward center of sacromere.
Extend from thick filments Myosin Heads
Contain myosin-binding site Actin molecules
Dense area that separates sacromeres Z discs
Contain acetylcholine Synaptic vesicles
Striated zone of the sarcomere composed of thick and thin filaments A band
Space between axon terminal and the sarcolemma Synaptic cleft
Striated zone of the sarcomere composed of thin filaments only I band
Region of sarcolemma near the adjoining axon terminal Motor end plate
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