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Med Term Mod_21

Terms, Abbreviations & Meanings

a.c., ac before meals(Latin: ante cibum)
ACE angiotensin-converting enzyme
ad lib freely, as desired(Latin: ad libitum)
APAP acetominophen(Tylenol)
b.i.d., bid two times a fay(Latin: bis in die)
c (with an line over c) with
Caps capsules
cc cubic centimeter
FDA Food and Drug Administration
gm, g gram
gtt drops(Latin: guttae)
h hour(Latin: hora)
h.s., hs at bedtime
H2 blocker histimine H2 receptor antagonist
HRT hormone replacement therapy
IM intramuscular
INH isoniazid-antituberculosis agent
IV intravenous
MAOI monoamine oxidase inhibitor
mg milligram
ml, mL milliliter
NPO nothing by mouth(Latin: nil per os)
NSAID nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug
p (with an line over p) after(Latin: post)
p.c., pc after meals(Latin: post cibum)
PCA patient-controlled analgesia
PDR Physician's Desk Reference
p.o., po, PO by mouth(Latin: per os)
p.r.n., prn as needed, as necessary(Latin: pro re nata, as the ocassion arises)
Pt patient
q every (Latin: quaque)
q.h., qh every hour(Latin: quaque hora)
q2h every 2 hours
q.i.d., qid four times a day(Latin: quater in die)
q.s., qs sufficient quantity(Latin: quantum satis)
qAM every morning
qPM every evening
Rx prescription
s (with an line over s) without(Latin: sine)
SERM selective estrogen receptor modulator
Sig. directions on how to take medication
SL sublingual
s.o.s. if it is necessary(Latin: si opus sit)
SSRI selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor
SQ subcutaneous
tab tablet
TCA tricyclic antodepressant
t.i.d., tid three times daily(Latin: ter in die)
ACE inhibitor drug that lowers blood pressure; antihypertensive drug
addition physical & psychologic dependence on & craving for a drug
additive action combination of 2 similar drugs is equal to sum of effects of each
aerosol particles of drug suspended in air
amphetamine CNS stimulant
analgesic drug that relieves pain
anaphylaxis exaggerated hypersensitivity reaction to previously encountered drug or antigen
androgen male hormone
anesthesia absence of nervous feeling/sensation
anesthetic drug that reduces/eliminates nervous sensation
angiotensin II receptor antagonist drug that lowers blood pressure by preventing angiotensin from acting on receptors in blood vessels
antacid drug that works against acid in stomach
antagonistic action combination of 2 drugs gives less than the sum of effects of each together
anti androgen drug that slows uptake of androgens/interferes with their effect in tissues
antiarrhythmic drug that treats abnormal heart rhythms
antibiotic chemical substance that has ability to inhibit/destroy foreign organisms in body
anticoagulant drug that prevents blood clotting
anticonvulsant depress or prevent abnormal spontaneous brain activity withou affecting normal function
antidepressant drug that relieves symptoms of depression
antidiabetic drug given to prevent/treat diabetes mellitus
antidiarrheal drug that prevents diarrhea
antidote agent given to counteract an unwanted effect of a drug
antiemetic drug that prevents nausea & vomiting
antihistamine drug that blocks action of histamine & helps prevent symptoms of allergy
antinauseant drug that relieves nausea & vomiting; antiemetic
antiplatlet drug that reduces tendanct of platlets to stick together & form a clot
antipruritic drug that acts against pruritus
antupyretic drug that lowers fever
antiulcer drug that inhibits secretion of acid by cells lining stomach
antiviral drug that acts against viruses such as herpes & HIV
aromatase inhibitor drug that reduces estrogen (estradiol) in blood by blocking enzyme aromatase
bactericidal pertaining to killing, rather than inhibiting, growth of bacteria, fungi, or parasites
becteriostatic pertaining to inhibiting growth of bacteria, fungi, or parasites
beta-blocker blocks action of epinephrine at receptor sites in the heart and blood vessels
bisphosphonate drug that prevents bone loss in osteoporosis & osteopenia
brand name commercial name for a drug; trade/trademark name
bronchodilator agent that dilates blood vessels & relieves bronchospasm
caffeine CNS stimulant
calcium channel blocker drug that stops entrance of calcium into muscles of heart & blood vessels
lowers blood pressure & restore normal heart rhythm calcium channel blocker
cardiovascular pertaining to hear & blood vessels
cardiovascular drugs act on the heart & blood vessels
cathartic drug that relieves constipation
chemical name chemical formula for a drug
chemotherapy treatment with drugs
contraindication factor in patient's condition that prevents use of particular drug/treatment
diuretic drug that promotes/increases production of urine
emetic drug that promotes vomiting
endocrine pertaining to internal secretion
endocrine drugs hormone or hormone-like drug acting on a part of endocrine system
erythromycin antibiotic that is extracted from a red mold
estrogen female hormone that promotes secondary sex characteristics & supports reproductive tissues
gastrointestinal pertaining to stomach & intestines
generic name legal, noncommercial name for a drug
glucocorticoid hormone from adrenal cortex that raises blood sugar & reduces tissue inflammation
hypnotic drug that promotes sleep or a trance-like state
hypodermic pertaining to under the skin
iatrogenic pertaining to condition that is produced by physician/treatment
idiosyncrasy unexpected effect produced in particularly sensitive individual; not seen in most patients
inhalation administration of drugs in gaseous/vapor form through nose/mouth
intrathecal pertainin to within meninges/membranes surrounding spinal cord
laxative weak cathartic; promotes movement of feces through colon
medical chemistry study of new drug synthesis & relationship between chemical structure of drug & biological effects
molecular pharmacology study of interaction of drugs & target molecules, enzymes, or cell surface receptors
narcotic habit-forming drug that relieves pain by producing stupor & insensibility
orla administration drugs that are given by mouth
parenteral administration drugs/nourishment given intravenously & other than the intestinal tract
pharmacist specialist in preparing & dispensing drugs
pharmacodynamics study of effects & strengths of a drug within body
pharmacokinetics calculation of drug concentration in tissues & body fluids over period of time
pharmacologist specialist in stufy of properties, uses & actions of drugs
pharmacology study of properties, uses & actions of drugs
pharmacy location for/study of preparing & dispensing drugs
progestin hormone that stimulates uterine lining during pregnancy & is used in treatment of abnormal uterine bleeding & HRT
purgative drug that relieves constipation & is strong cathartic
receptor target substance with which a drug interacts in the body
rectal administration drugs inserted through anus into rectum
respiratory drug treats asthma, emphysema & infections affecting breathing
sedative mild sleep inducing agent that relaxes patient without necessaryily producing sleep
side effect predictable toxic effects that are considered tolerable
stimulant drug that excited & promotes activity
subcutaneous pertaining to under skin
sublingual pertaining to under tounge
synergism drug action in which combination of two drugs causes effect greater than sum of individual effects of each drug
synergistic pertaining to syngerism
syringe instrument for introducing/withdrawing fluids from body
thryroid hormone secretion from thyroid gland that stimulates cellular metabolism
tolerance drug action which larger & larger doses must be given to achieve a desired effect
topical application drugs applied locally on skin or on mucous membranes of body
toxicity harmful effect of a drug
toxicology branch of pharmacology that studies harmful chemicals & effects on body
tranquilizer drug that controls anxiety & severe disturbances of behavior
transport movement of drug across cell membrane into body cells
vasodilator drug that widens blood vessels
vitamin substance found in foods & essential in small quanities for growth & good health
drug any chemical/biological substance used in disease prevention/treatment, or used to benefit a body process/function
sources of digitalis, penicillin, & streptomycin are plants
animals provide hormones
laboratory synthesis of chemicals to make drugs like methotrexate & prednisone
Some of the most widely ingested drugs are vitamins contained in foods
a broad medical specialty demanding study of medicinal chemistry, pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics, chemotherapy, & toxicology pharmacology
either a medical physician, or PhD professional who specializes in pharmacology is a pharmacist
marketed drugs are always assigned at least two, and often three, names
official name given to a drug, for legal & scientific purposes generic name
if a drug falls into competitive marketing each manufacturer will distribute/sell under their own trade, or brand name
required name that reveals drug's basic elements & coumpounds, scientific make-up chemical name
in Europe and many parts of Africa, a pharmacist is called a chemist
in Europe & many parts of Africe a chemist takes the role of a doctor for minor disorders
pharmacists are health care professionals must complete 5yr BS or 6-7 yr PharmD course of study
pharmacists must also pass a state licensing exam
United States Pharmacopeia (U.S.P.) reviews drugs as clinically useful and pure; they are independent
legislative body legally responsible for passing rigorous drug standards regarding efficacy, purity, and extensive testing of a drug in the U.S. Food & Drug Administration
Many drugs have more than one dose form
more than one dose form allows drugs to be delivered in ways that are amenable to more than one situation or type of patient
most convenient form of administration oral
oral administration is slower than most other forms and also requires that the drug be able to withstand the digestive system's challenges
route of absorption bypasses digestive route & is valuable when time is crucial sublingual administration
helpful when a patient is experiencing nausea/vomiting & can't tolerate swallowing rectal administration
transdermal patches designed to control the release of drugs directly into the systemic circulation
pain-relieving drugs, birth control, & smoking cessation drugs are avilable as transdermal patches
Injections administration of a drug from a tube syringe through hollow needle placed under skin
there are six basic types of parenteral injections
least invasive parenteral injection subcutaneous
hypodermic needle inserted into subcutaneous tissue under the skin, usually in the upper arm, thigh, or abdomen
intradermal injection injection made into the upper layers of the skin
used in skin testing for allergies intradermal injection
intramuscular (IM) injection helps avoid skin irritation & is useful for large volumes of long-acting drugs
intravenous (IV) injection given directly into the vein for an almost immediate effect
when administration into other tissues would not be safe intravenous (IV) injection
intrathecal injection drug delivered into underlying membranes or meninges surrounding spinal cord & brain
delivery of chemotherapy for the treatment of leukemia intrathecal injection
intracavitary injection injection made directly into a body cavity; such as peritoneal/pleural cavities
spray, ointment, cream, lotion, or transdermal patch; deliver drugs through skin topical administration
inhaling vapor/gas through nose/mouth medication absorbed through thin walls of air sacs in lungs inhalation administration
process of absorption is the process of passing into the bloodstream
target cell receptor may be intracellular or on the cell's surface
drug metabolism changes the drug undergoes within the body
a drug's therapeutic effects take place between absorption and excretion
Therapeutic effects can be additive or they can result in synergism, or potentiation
potentiation enhancement of one agent by another; combined effect greater than sum of effects of each one alone
tolerance can be a feature of, although not the same thing as addiction
addiction physical & psychological dependence that shows clear negative effects when withdrawn
idiosyncrasy can be mild, or severe toxicity
a serious unwanted reaction to a drug may require an antidote to be given
used to relieve only the most severe pain narcotics/opioids
opioids derived from opium, induce near unconsciousness inhibiting acitivity
reduce fever, pain, and inflammation without exposing the patient to steroid hormones NSAIDS
NSAIDS inihibit prostaglandins
prostaglandins sensitize peripheral pain receptors
general anesthetic depress activity of CNS & produce loss of consiousness
local anesthetics inhibit nerve conduction in a single region
antibiotics can take the form of bacteriostatic or bactericidal
pathogenic organisms we were targeting could become resistant to that agent indiscriminate use of antibiotics
heparin or warfarin prevent clotting in conditions such as thrombosis & embolism
tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) dissolves clots in coronary arteries after myocardial infarction
improved the quality of life for patients with epilepsy and certain kinds of brain tumors anticonvulsants
type 1 diabetes patients must receive daily injections of human insulin
type 2 diabetes patients may receive oral antidiabetic drugs
axample of an oral antidiabetic drug sulfonylureas
sulfonylureas lower glucose levels by stimulating insulin production
biguanides increase body's sensitivity to insulin & reduce liver production of glucose
alpha-glucosidase inihibitors temporarily block enzymes that digest sugars
thiazolidinediones enhance glucose uptake
meglitinides stimulate beta cells in pancreas to provide insulin
also used to prevent motion sickness antihistamines
used in cases of ingested poison emetics
antiosteoporosis drugs help prevent abnormal loss of bone density & increase calium deposition in bone
bisphosphonates prevent bone loss
SERMs increase bone formation
antidepressants relieve depression in a variety of ways elevating mood, increasing activity/alertness, & improving appetite/sleep patterns
tricyclic antidepressants & selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors block neurotransmitters by blocking their uptake from synapses between nerve cells
monoamine oxidase inhibitors help neurotransmitters work longer by blocking natural inhibitor,
enzyme monoamine oxidase natural neurotramsitter inhibitor
One of the first steps in preventing or controlling several cardiovascular disorders administration of aspirin
administration of aspirin is used to prevent blood vessel clots
sublingual nitroglycerin dilate coronary blood vessels, slow heart rate & put more force into heart contractions
Digoxin can control arrhythmias by slowing heart rate & used to treat congestive heart failure by helping heart to pump more forcefully
improve the heart's performance, reduces workload & keeps blood vessels dilated ACE inhibitors
ACE inhibitors prevent angiotensin I from converting to the powerful vasoconstrictor angiotensin II
angiotensin II receptor antagonists lower blood pressure by preventing angiotensin from acting on receptors in blood vessels
useful in treating angina, hypertension, arrhythmia, & following heart attack beta blockers
by blocking the action of epinephrine, beta blockers reduce blood pressure & decrease muscle tone in blood vessels & increase output of heart
Calcium is necessary for blood vessel contraction
useful in treating angina and arrhythmias calcium channel blockers
slowing response of heart muscle to nervous stimulation or slowing rate at which nervous system impulses are carried through heart antiarrhythmics
hypercholesterolemia is a contributor to heart disease
cholestyramine cholesterol lowering drug; promot cholesterols' excretion into feces
statins, HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors agents that reduce liver production of cholesterol
reduce blood volume by stimulating the kidney to remove water and salt through urine diuretics
often administered either intranasally or by injection bronchodialtors
Leukotriene modifiers prevent asthma attacks by blocking bronchoconstrictor leukotriene from binding to respiratory tissue receptors
endogenous naturally occuring
intended to mimic the actions of specific endogenous hormones endocrine drugs
in women, they are helpful in treating endometriosis and breast cancer androgens
androgens are used for male hormone replacement therapy
used to ease symptoms of menopause & prevent osteoporosis associated with postmenopause estrogens
flutamide antiandrogen drug useful in treating prostate cancer
tamoxifen antiestrogen used to prevent recurrence of breast cancer & treat metastatic breast cancer
bind to estrogen receptors in bones SERMs
used in treatment of inflammation; arthritis; gastrointestinal, skin, respiratory, & blood disorders; & cancer adrenal corticosteroids, or glucocorticoids
few are curative, most just relieve symptoms gastrointestinal drugs
epigastric discomfort and the symptoms of peptic ulcer and esophagitis are usually treated with antacids to neutralize stomach's hydrochloric acid
Cathartics can act by increase intestinal salts, encouraging fluid to fill intestines/increase fecal bulk, prompting movement in intestinal wall
lubricate the intestinal tract and soften stools cathartics
laxatives are mild cathartics
purgatives are strong cathartics
inner ear disturbances; vertigo, dizziness, motion sickness, or labyrinthitis antiemetics aid in treatment
peptic ulcer disease (PUD) treatment with ulcer drug, like Prevacid
Prevacid, or other anti-ulcer drugs promote healing by blocking secretion of histamine, which stimulates secretion of gastric acid from lining of stomach
insomnia and other sleep disorders are treated with sedatives & hypnotics
mild tranquilizers, like the benzodiazepines control minor anxiety symptoms
major tranquilizers, like the phenothiazines control more severe behavior disturbances and disorders
used to prevent narcolepsy, suppress appetite, and also to calm hyperkinetic children amphetamines
used to inhibit hyperactive behaviors, particularly in children stimulants
stimulants can be used in emergency situations to cases of shock/collapse, quick interventions in brain to speed up vital processes in heart & respiratory system & increase alertness as well
feel better when they use relaxation therapy on a regular basis asthma patients, as well as cancer patients
Created by: lfrancois