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ch10 med

10

QuestionAnswer
MRI MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING
VT, V Tech VENTRICULAR TACHYCADIA
VSD VENTRICULAR SRPTAL DEFECT
MI MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION
LDL LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEIN
SA SINOATRIAL
ICD IMPLANTABLE CARDIOVERSION DEFRILLATOR
HDL HIGH-DNESITY LIPOPROTEIN
PVCs PREMATURE VENTRICLUAR CONTRACTIONS
PTCA PERCUTANEOUS TRANSLUMINAL CORONARY ANGIOPLASTY
PET POSITRON EMISSION TOMOGRAPHY
EKG ELECTROCARDIOGRAM
ECHO ECHOCARDIOGRAM
CVD CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE
DVT DEEP VEIN THROMBOSIS
ECG ELECTROCARDIOGRAM
DOE DYSPNEA ON EXTERION
MS MITRAL STENOSIS
MVP MITRAL VALVE PROPLAPSE
PACs PREMATURE ATRIAL CONTRACTIONS
PDA PATENT DUCTUS ARTERIOUS
PAT PAROXYSMAL ATRIAL TACHYCARIDA
CAD CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE
Cath CATHETERIXATION
CC CARDIAC CATHETERIZATION
CCU CORONARY CARE UNIT
CHD CORONARY HEART DISEASE
CHF CONGESTIVE HEART FAILURE
CPR CARDIOPULMONARY RESUSCITATION
CT (scan) or CAT scan COMPUTED AXIAL TOMOGRAPHY (scan)
CABG CORONARY ARTERY BYPASS GRAFT
BP BLOOD PRESSURE
BBB BUNDLE BRANCH BLOCK
AV ATRIOVENTRICULAR
ASHD ARTERIOSCLEROTIC HEART DISEASE
ASD ATRIAL SEPTAL DEFECT
AS AORTIC STENOSIS
AMI ACUTE MYOCARDIAL INFARCATION
WEAKNESS lacking physical strength or vigor(energy)
vomiting ejection through the mouth of the gastric content
tachycardia abnormal rapidity of heart action, usually defined as a heart rate over 100 beats per minute
sweat perspiration;the liqiud secreted by the sweat glands, having a salty taste
pallor lack of color, paleness
palpitation rapid, violent, or throbbing pulsation as an abnomrally rapid throbbing or fluttering of the heart, palpitation is felt by the patient
nausea unpleasant sensation, usually preceding vomiting
headache a diffues pain in different portions of the head and not confined to any nerve distrubtion area
fever elevation of temperature above the normal
fatigue a feeling of tiredness or weariness resulting from continued activity or as a side effect from some psychotropic drug
dyspnea air hunger resulting in labored or difficult breathing, sometimes accompanied by pain(nomral when caused by vigrous work r athletic activity)
cyanosis slightly bluish,grayish,slatelike or dark discoloration of the skin due to the presence or abnormal amounts of reduced hemoglobin in the blood
chest pain a feeling if discomfort in the chest area
bradycardia a slow heart rate characterized by a pulse rate under 60 beats per mintue
anxiety a feeling of apprehension worry, uneasiness, or dread espically of the future
anorexia lost of appetite
congestive heart failure condition characterized by weakness, breathless abdominal discomfort
cardiomyopathy is disease of the heart muscle itself,primarily affecting the pumping ability of the heart-noninflammatory disease of the heart results in enlargement of the heart and dysfunction of the ventricles of the heart
cardiac tamponade comparssion of the heart caused by the accumulation of blood or other fluid within the pericardial sac(there is nomrally just enough fluid withiin this cavity to lubricate the area)
angina pectorsis is severe pain and constriction about the heart usually raiating to theleftshoulder and down the left arm creating a feeling of pressure in the anterior chest
coronary artery disease is the narrowing of the coronary arteries to teh extent that adequate blood supply to the myocardium is prevented
endocarditis inflammation of the membrane lining of the valves and chambers of the heart caused by direct invasion of bacteria of other organisms and leading to deformity of the valve cups-abnormal growths called vegetations are formed on or within the membrane
hypertensive heart disease is a result of long term hypertension - the heart is affected because it must work against increased resistance due to increased prssure in the arteries
mitral valve prolapse is drooping of one of both cups of the mitral valve back into the left atrium during ventricular systole (when the heart is pumping blood)resulting in incomplete closure of the valve and mitral insufficiency
myocardial infarcation heart attack;a condition caused by occlusion of one or more of the coronary arteries. life threatening condition results when myocardial tissue is destroyed in areas of the heart that are deprived of an adequate blood supply due to the occluded vessels
aneurysm a localized dilatation of an artery formed at a weak point in the vessel wall, this weakened area balloons out with each pulsation of the artery
rheumatic fever an inflammatory disease that may develop as a delayed reaction to insufficently treated group A beta hemolytic streptococcal infection of the upper respiratory tract
myocarditis inflammation of the myocardium may be caused by viral or bacterial infections or may be a result of systemic diseases such as reheumatic fever
pericarditis inflammantion of the pericardium (the sac like membrane that covers the heart muscle)it may be acute or chronic
arteriosclerosis an arterial condition in which there is thicking, hardening, and loss of walls of arteries-resulting in decreased blood supply, espically to the lower extremities and cerebrum-this is called hardening of the arteries
hypertension a condition in which the patient has a higher blood pressure than that judged to be normal-charcterized by elevated blood pressure persistently exceeding 130/85 mmHg'often asymptomatic
peripheral arterial occlusive disease obstuction of the arteries in the extremities (predominantly the legs) the leading of this artherclerosis.which leads to narrowing of the lumen of the artery.
peripheral arterial occlusive disease classic sympton- is intermittent claudicdication,which is a cramplike pain in the muscles brought on by excerise and relieved by rest
varicose veins enlarged superficialveins;a twisted dilated vein with incomptent valves
thrombophlebitis inflammation of a vein associated with the formation of a thrombus (clot)-usually occurs in an extending most frequently a leg
raynaud's phenomenon intermittent attacks of vasconstriction of the arteries (causing pallor of the fingers or toes) followed by cyanosis and then reddness before returning to normal color;initiated by exposure to cold or emotional disturbance
tetralogy of fallot a congential heart anomaly that consits of four defects;pulmonary stenosis;interventricular septal defect,dextroposition (shifting to the right)of the arota so that it recieves blood from both ventricles & hypertophy of the right ventricle
tetralogy of fallot -named for the french physicain Etienne Fallot who first descirbed the condition
patent ductus arterisous is an abnormal opening between the pulmponary artery and the artoa caused by afilure of the fetal ductus arterisous to close after birth -the defect is seen primariy in premature infants
coarctation of the aorta congential heart defect characterized by a locaized narrowing of the aorta,which results in increased blood pressure in the upper extremities and decreased blood pressure in the lower extremities
venous insufficiency an abnormal circulatory condition characterized by decreased return of venous blood from the legs to the trunk of the body
atrial flutter condition in which the contraction of the atria become extremely rpaid,at the rate of between 250 and 350 beats per mintue
transpostron of the great vessels a condition in which the two major arteries of the heart are reversed in position, which results in two noncommunicating circulatory systems
ventricaluar tachycarida is a condition in which the ventriclesof the heart beat at a rate greater than 100 beats pe mintue; characterized by three or more consecutive premature ventricular contractions-also known as V0Tech (VT)
caridac enzymes test are preformed on samples of blood obtained by venipunture to determine the presence of damage to the myocaridal muscle
cardiac catheterization a diagnostic procure in which a catheter (a hollow flexible tube) is introsuced into a large vein or artery (usually of an arm or a leg)& then thread through the circulatory system to the heart
angiography x-ray visualization of the internal anatomy of the heart and blood vessels after introducing a radiopaque substance (contrast medium)that promotes the imaging (makes them visbile) of internal structures that are otherwise diffuclt to see on x-ray film
angiography -this substance is injected into an artery or a vein
heart block (av) heart block is an interference with the normal conduction of electric impluses that control activity of the heart muscle
fibrillation (atrial/ventricluar) is extremely rapid,incomplete contractions of the atria resulting in disorganized and uncoordinadted twitching of the atria
holter monitoring a small portable monitoring device that makes prolonged ectecroardiograph recordings on a portable tape recorder
excerise sress testing a means of assesing cardiac function by subjecting the patient to carefully controlled amounts of physical stress-0ex treadmill
event montior is similar to the holter monitor in that it also records the eclectrical activity of the heart while the patinet goes about usual daily activities
thaallium stress test one of several nuclear stress tests-is a combination of exercise stress testing with thallium imaging to assess changes in coronary blood flow during exercise
serum lipid test measures the amount of fatty substances in a sample of blood obtained by venipunture
positron emission tomography (pet) a computerized x-ray techinque that uses radioactive substances to examine the blood flow and the metabolic activity of various body structures such as the heart and blood vessels
magnetic resonance imaging(mri) invloves the use of a strong magnetic filed and radiofrequency waves to produce imaging that is valuable in producing images of the reart,large blood vessels,brain and sfot tissue
implantable cardioverter defibrillator is a small lightweight electronic device placed under the skin or muscle in either the chest or abdomen to mointor the heart's rhytm
holter monitoring a small portable monitoring device that makes prolonged electrocardiograph recordings on a portable tape recorder
excerise stress reading a means of assessing cardiac function by subjecting the patient to carefully controlled amounts of physical stress-ex.treadmill
event monitor records the electrical activity of the heart while the patient goes about usual daily activities-can be used longer than the holter monitor
electrocardiogram is a graphic record (visual representation)the electrical action of the heart as reflected from various angles to the surface of the skin-known as EKG or ECG
cat computed axial tomography is a diagnostic x-ray technique that uses ionizing radiation to produce a cross sectional image of the body
echocardiography is a diagnostic procedure for studying the structure and motion of the heart-useful in evaluating structural and functional changes in a variety of heart disorders
cardiac enzymes test are performed on samples of blood obtained by venipuncture to determine the presence of damage to the myocardial muscle
cardiac catheterization a diagnostic procedure in which a catheter (a hollow flexible tube) is introduced into a large vein or artery -usually of an arm or a leg-& then threaded through the circulatory system to the heart
angiography x-ray visualization of the internal anatomy of the heart and blood vessels after introducing a radiopaque substance (contrast medium) that promotes the imaging (makes them visible) of internal structures that are otherwise difficult to see on x-ray film
ventricular tachycardia is a condition in which the ventricles of the heart beat at a rate greater than 100 beats per minute;characterized by 3 or more consecutive premature ventricular contractions (PVCs)-also known as v-tech-vt
heart block (AV) is an introduced with the normal condition of electric impulses that control activity of the heart muscle
fibrillation (atrial/ventricular) is extremely rapid incomplete contractions of the atria resulting in disorganized and uncoordinated twitching of the atria
atrial flutter condition in which the contractions of the atria become extremely rapid,at the rate of between 250 and 350 beats per minute
transposition of the great vessels a condition in which the two major arteries of the heart are reversed in position which results in two noncommunicating circulatory systems
tetraolgy of fallot a congenital heart anomaly that consists of 4 defects;pulmonary stenosis,intreventricular septal,dextropostition-shifting to the right-of the aorta so that it receives blood from both ventricles,& hypertrophy of the right ventricle-
tetraolgy of fallot named for the french etinne fallot-who first described the condition
patent ductus arteriosus is an abnormal opening between the pulmonary artery and the aorta caused by failure of the fetal ductus arteriosous to close after birth-defect primarily in premature infants
coarctation of the aorta a congenital heart defect characterized by a localized narrowing of the aorta,which results in increased blood pressure in the upper extremities & decreased blood pressure in the lower extremities
venous insufficiency an abnormal circulatory condition characterized by decreased return of venous blood from the legs to the trunk of the body
varicose veins enlarged, superficial veins-a twisted dilated vein with incompetent valves
thrombophlebitis inflammation of a vein associated with the formation of a thrombus(clot)-usually occurs in an extremity most frequently a leg
raynauds phenomenon intermittent attacks of vasconstriction of the arteries-causing pallor of the fingers or toes-followed by cyanosis and then redness before returning to normal color,initiated by exposure to cold or emotional disturbance
peripheral arterial occulusive disease obstruction of the arteries in the extremities-predominantly the legs-the leading cause of this disease is atherosclerosis
hypertension a condition in which the patient has a higher blood pressure than that judged to be normal-characterized by elevated blood pressure persistently exceeding 130/85 mmhg -often oftern asyptomatic
arteriosclerosis an arterial condition in which there is thickening hardening and loss of elasticity of walls of arteries-resulting in decreased blood supply,espically to the lower extremities and cerebrum -also called hardening of the arteries
pericarditis inflammation of the pericardium (the saclike membrane that covers the heart muscle)it may be acute or chronic
myocarditis inflammation of the myocardium may be caused by viral or bacterial infections or may be a result of systemic diseases such as rheumatic fever-this may also be caused by fungal infections,serum sickness or a chemical agent
aneursym a localized dilatation of an artery formed at a weak point in the vessel wall-this weakened area balloons out with each pulsation of the artery
rheumatic fever an inflammatory disease that may develop as a delayed reaction to insufficiently group A beta-hemolytic treptococcal infection of the upper respiratory tract
Created by: Courtneey