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Nervous Chapter 10

Nervous System Chapter 10

ganglion is a nerve center made up of a cluster of nerve cell bodies outside the central nervous system Note: the term ganglion describes a benign, tumor
plexus is a network of intersecting spinal nerves
receptors are sensory organs eyes, ears, skin, nose and taste buds that receive eternal stimulation the receptors send the stimulus through the sensory neurons to the brain for interpretation
stimulus is anything that excites or activates a nerve and causes an impulse.. impulse is a wave of excitation transmitted through nerve fibers and neurons
glial cells provide support and protection for neurons and their four main functions are 1. hold them in place 2.supply nutrients ad oxygen to neurons 3. to insulate one neuron from another 4. to destroy and remove dead neurons
neurons are the basic cells of the nervous system that allow different parts of the body to communicate with each other
ACE Afferent neurons - towards / Connecting neurons- link / Efferent neurons - away from
SAM Sensory neurons- from sensory organs and the skin to carry the impulses from the sensory organs toward the brain / associative neurons- link/ motor neurons- these neurons carry impulses away from the brain and spinal cord toward the muscles and gland
reflex is an automatic involuntary response to some change wither inside or outside the body examples heart rate, breathing rate and blood pressure and coughing and sneezing
synapse is the space between two neurons or between a neuron and a rector organ. a single neuron can have a few. or several hundred synapse
hypnotics depresses the central nervous system and usually produces sleep
sedatives depresses the central nervous system to produce calm and diminished responsiveness without producing sleep
antidepressants is administered to prevent or relieve depression can also be used to treat obsessive compulsive and generalized anxiety disorders and to help relieve chronic pain
antipsychotic drug is used to treat symptoms of sever disorders of thinking and mood that are associated with neurological and psychiatric illnesses such as schizophrenia, mania and delusional disorders
tetanus is an acute potentially fatal infection of the central nervous system caused by toxin produced by tetanus bacteria. typically acquired through a deep puncture wound know as lockjaw
somnambulism is the condition of walking or performing some other activity with awakening
Guillain=Barre syndrome known as infectious polyneuritis is an inflammation of the myelin sheath of peripheral nerves. weakness of muscles can cause temporary paralysis condition is an autoimmune reaction that occur after certain viral infections or an immunization
radiculitis known as a pinched nerve is an iflammation of the root of a spinal nerve that causes pain an numbness radiating down the affected limb this portion of root lies between the spinal cord and intervertebral canal of the spinal column
amyotrophic lateral sclerosis known as Lou Gehrigs disease is a rapidly progressive neurological disease that attacks the nerve cells responsible for controlling voluntary muscles patients become weaker until they are paralyzed and die
pyromania is a disorder characterized by repeated deliberate fire setting
kleptomania is a disorder characterized by repeatedly stealing objects neither for personal use nor for their monetary value
claustrophobia is an abnormal fear of being in narrow or enclosed spaces
acrophobia is an excessive fear of being in high places
agoraphobia fear of public places / fear of having a panic attack in a public setting
meningitis is an inflammation of the meninges fo the brain and spinal cord can be fatal caused by a bacterial or viral infection.. fever, vomiting intense headache and still neck
concussion is a violent shaking up or jarring of the brain. may result in a temporary loss of awareness and function
cranial hematoma is a collection of blood trapped in the tissues of the brain / epidural is located above the dura mater and a subdural is located below the dura mater
amnesia is memory disturbance characterized by a total or partial inability to recall past experiences. caused by a brain injury, illness or psychological disorder
ICP intracranial pressure
psychiartist is a physician who specializes in diagnosing and treating chemical dependencies emotional problems and mental illness
psychologist holds an advanced degree but is not a medical doctor
insomnia is the prolonged or abnormal inability to sleep. usually a symptom of another problem such as depression pain or excessive caffeine
Alzheimer's disease is a group of disorders involving the parts of the brain that control thought memory and language it is marked progressive deterioration that affects both memory and reasoning capabilities of an individual
dysthymia known as systhymic disorder is a low grade chronic depression with symptoms that are milder than those of severe depression but are present on a majority of days for 2 or more years
cerebrum is the larges and upper most of portion of the brain it is responsible for all thought memory and emotion as well as for controlling and integrating motor and sensory functions
cerebellum it coordinates muscular activity and balance for smooth and steady movements is below the cerebrum
medulla is located at the lowest part of the brainstem is connected to the spinal cord it controls basic survival functions including the muscles that make respiration, heart rate, and blood pressure as well as reflexes for coughing,sneezing,swallowing,vomiting
brainstem is located in the base of the brain forms the connection between the brain and spinal cord it consists of midbrain,pons,medulla controls functions for survival breathing,heartrate,blood pressure,being awake
CVA cerebral vascular accident this condition is damage to the brain that occurs when the blood flow to the brain is disrupted from,blood vessel or blocked or has ruptured.location of damage determines symptom damage to the right produces symptoms on the left side of body visa versa
TIA transient ischemic attack is temporary interruption in the blood supply to the brain.blurred vision,dizziness,loss of balance passes quickley but could be a warning sign
hemorrhagic stroke known as a bleed occurs when a blood vessel in the brain leaks,aneurysm within the brain
ascending tracts carry nerve impulses toward the brain
descending tracts carry nerve impulses away from the brain
pia mater which is the third layer of the meninges located nearest to the brain and spinal cord it consists of delicate connective tissue that contains a rich supply of blood vessels
dura mater is the thick though outermost membrane of the meninges
bells palsy is the temporary paralysis of the seventh cranial nerve that causes paralysis only of the affected side of the face inability to close eyes.pain,tearing,drooling,hypersensitivity to sound in the affected ear and impairment of taste
sciatica is inflammation of the sciatic nerve that results in pain,burning,tingling along the course of the affected sciatic nerve through the thigh,leg and foot
generalized anxiety disorder is by chronic anxiety + exaggerated worry and tension even when there is little or nothing to provoke these feelings.physical symptoms include muscle tension,sleep disturbance and restlessness
factitious disorder is a condition in which an individual acts as if her or she has a physical or mental illness when he or she in not really sick, the desire to receive attention and sympathy
hypochondriasis is fearing that one has a serious illness despite appropriate medical evaluation and reassurance known as hypochondriac
multiple sclerosis is a progressive autoimmune disorder inflammation that causes demyelination of the myelin sheath. This scars the brain,spinal cord and optic nerves and disrupts the transmission of nerve impulses causes pain and cognitive problems
cerebal palsy condition that has poor muscle control,spasticity,speech defects and other neurologic deficiencies due to damage that affects the cerebrum. it occurs most frequently in premature or low birth weight infants.
ADHD is characterized by a short attention span and impulsive behavior that is inappropriate for the child's developmental age. hyperactivity is restlessness or continuing excess of movement may persist into adult hood
dyslexia is a learning disability substandard reading achievement due to the inability of the brain to process symbols known as developmental reading disorder
autism known as autistic disorder a group of conditions in which a young child cannot develop normal social relationships compulsively follows repetitive routines and has poor communication skills
causalgia is persistent,severe burning pain that usually follows an injury to a sensory nerve
Created by: cameronslc