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2 - Pharm (11/11)


What are the extended spectrum penicillins? Ampicillin and Amoxicillin
Ampicillin and Amoxicillin are usually used in combination with what? Beta-lactamase inhibiotors (Clavulanate & Sulbactam)
What are the Beta-lactamase inhibitors? Clavulanate & Sulbactam
How do Beta-lactamase inhibitors work? through competitive inhibition of Beta-lactamase
Are Beta-lactamase inhibitors antibiotics? No, penicillinase has a higher affinity for clavulanic acid than penicillin, thus penicillin is freed to act against bacteria
What are the 3 Methods of Penicillin resistance? 1. Destroy the antibiotic(B-lactamase) 2. Decrease entry (porins) 3. Reduce affinity to PBPs (modification)
What are the narrow spectrum pnicillins? Penicillin G and Penicillin V
Which penicillin is penicillinase resistant? Nafcillin
What is a Cephalosporin? An antibiotic which is less usuceptible to penicillinases - Disrubts the synthesis of peptidoglycan
How does the nucleus of penicillin differ from that of cephalosporin? Cephalosporins have a dihydrothiazine ring Penicillins have a thiazolidine ring
How do first generation cephalosporins differ from 2nd, 3rd, & 4th generations? 1st generation: primarily acitve agianst gram+others act more against gram- (some gram+)
Why are Cephalosporins helpful? 1. Can be used against penicillin resistant bacteria 2. Are more stable than penicillins 3. Less toxic
Vancomycin can be used against what types of bacteria? 1. Gram+ 2. penicillin or methicillin resistant 3. Pseudomembranous colitis
Red man syndrom is a result of what? Rapid infusion (toxicity) of vancomycin
What are the three primary catagories of protein synthesis inhibitors? 1. Aminoglycosides 2. Tetracyclines 3. Macrolides
What type of protein inhibitor is erythromycin? Macrolide
What type of protein inhibitor is streptomycin? Aminoglycosides
What are the sizes of prokaryotic ribosomes? 30S & 50S
What are the Aminoglycosides? 1. Gentamicin 2.Neomycin 3. Streptomycin 4. Tobramycin 5. Amikacin
What are the Tetracyclines? Doxycycline & Tetracycline
Which protein inhibitors are semisynthetic, reversible (bacteriostatic), and have a broad spectrum? Tetracyclines
What are the Macrolides? Erythromycin & Clarithromycin
Which prokaryotic protein synthesis inhibitor does not fit whithin the major three catagories? Chloramphenicol
Which protein inhibitors act against the 30S ribosomal subunit? Aminoglycans & Tetracyclines
Which protien inhibitors act against the 50S ribosomal subunit? Macrolides & Chloramphenicol
Aminoglycosides are primarily used for: 1. Gram-negative aerobes 2. Tobical treatments or gastroenteritis (poor absorption / not metabolized)
How are Aminoglycosides distinguished? By antibacterial spectrum
How are tetracyclines distinguished? By pharmacokinetics
Tetracyline toxicity results in what? 1. Teeth discoloration 2. Nephrotoxicity 3. Hepatotoxicity
Macrolides are effective agains what? Respiratory tract pathogens
How does chloramphenicol interact with the body? Well absobed and is able to cross BBB
Toxicity of chloramphenicol results in what? Anemia (may be irreversible)- only use if absolutely necessary
What are Antifolates? Antibacterial drugs that prevent folic acid metabolization to THF (inhibits DHFR)
What are the antifolates? Sulfonamides & Trimethoprim
What are Fluoroquinolones? Antibacterial drugs that preven bacterial DNA from unwinding
Ciprofloxcin belongs to what catagory of antibacterial agents? Fluoroquinolones
What are polymyxins? Antibiotics which disrupt cell membrane by interacting with phopholipids
Why are trimethoprim are sulfamethoxazole used together? Produce synergistic action (more effective against a variety of infections)same toxicity as when seperate
Fluoroquinolone toxicity results in what? Joint disease in the young and interference with caffeine metabolism
What four factors are involved in chosing the right antibacterial agent? 1. Host factors (pregnancy, renal function)2. Antimicrobial activity (mild vs severe) 3. Pharmacokinetics (target tissue) 4. Toxicity (risk/benifit ratio)
Created by: VCOM2013