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AL 101-chapter 7


testis, or testicle (pl. testes or testicles) primary male sex organs, paired, oval-shaped, and enclosed in a sac called the scrotum. The testes produce sperm and the hormone testosterone.
sperm (spermatozoon, pl. spermatozoa) the microscopic male germ cell, which, when united with the ovum, produces a zygote (fertilized egg) that with subsequent development becomes an embryo
testosterone the principal male sex hormone. Its chief function is to stimulate the development of the male reproductive organs & secondary sex characteristics such as facial hair.
seminiferous tubules approximately 900 coiled tubes within the testes in which spermatogenesis occurs
epididymis coiled duct atop each of the testes that provides for storage, transit, & maturation of spermatozoa; continuous with the vas deferens
vas deferens, ductus deferens, or seminal duct duct carries sperm from epididymis to urethra. The spermatic cord encloses each vas deferens w/nerves, lymphatics, arteries & veins. (Urethra also connects w/bladder & carries urine out. A circular muscle constricts during sex to prevent urination.)
seminal vesicles two main glands located at the base of the bladder that open into the vas deferens. The glands secrete a thick fluid, which forms part of the semen.
prostate gland encircles the upper end of the urethra. The prostate gland secretes a fluid that aids in the movement of the sperm & ejaculation.
scrotum sac suspended on both sides of and just behind the penis. The testes are enclosed in the scrotum.
penis male organ of urination & copulation
glans penis enlarged tip on the end of the penis
prepuce fold of skin covering the glans penis in uncircumcised males (foreskin of the penis)
semen composed of sperm, seminal fluids, & other secretions
genitalia (genitals) reproductive organs (male or female)
balan/o glans penis
epididym/o epididymis
orchid/o, orchi/o, orch/o, test/o testis, testicle
prostat/o prostate gland
vas/o vessel, duct
vesicul/o seminal vesicle
andr/o male
sperm/o, spermat/o spermatozoon (pl. spermatozoa), sperm
-ism state of
anorchism state of absence of testis (unilateral or bilateral)
balanitis inflammation of the glans penis
balanorrhea discharge from the glans penis
benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) excessive development pertaining to the prostate gland (nonmalignant enlargement of the prostate gland
cryptorchidism state of hidden testes. (During fetal development, testes are located in abdominal area near kidneys. Before birth they move down into the scrotal sac. Failure to descend into the scrotum before birth results in cryptorchidism/undescended testicles.)
epididymitis inflammation of an epididymis
orchiepididymitis inflammation of the testis & epididymis
orchitis, orchiditis, or testitis inflammation of the testis or testicle
prostatitis inflammation of the prostate gland
prostatocystitis inflammation of the prostate gland & the bladder
prostatolith stone in the prostate gland
prostatorrhea discharge from the prostate gland
prostatovesiculitis inflammation of the prostate gland & seminal vesicles
erectile dysfunction (ED) the inability of the male to attain or maintain an erection sufficient to perform sexual intercourse (formerly called impotence)
hydrocele scrotal swelling caused by a collection of fluid
phimosis a tightness of the prepuce (foreskin of the penis) that prevents its retraction over the glans penis; it may be congenital or a result of balanitis. Circumcision is the usual treatment.
priapism persistent abnormal erection of the penis accompanied by pain & tenderness
prostate cancer cancer of the prostate gland
testicular carcinoma cancer of the testicle
testicular torsion twisting of the spermatic cord causing decreased blood flow to the testis; occurs most often during puberty & often presents with a sudden onset of severe testicular or scrotal pain. It is often considered a surgical emergency.
varicocele enlarged veins of the spermatic cord
balanoplasty surgical repair of the glans penis
epididymectomy excision of an epididymis
orchidectomy, orchiectomy excision of the testes (bilateral orchidectomy also is called castration)
orchidopexy, orchiopexy surgical fixation of a testicle (performed to bring undescended testicle[s] into the scrotum)
orchidotomy, orchiotomy incision into a testis
orchioplasty surgical repair of a testis
prostatectomy excision of the prostate gland
prostatocystotomy incision into the prostate gland & bladder
prostatolithotomy incision into the prostate gland to remove a stone
prostatovesiculectomy excision of the prostate gland & seminal vesicles
vasectomy excision of a duct (partial excision of the vas deferens bilaterally, resulting in male sterilization)
vasovasostomy creation of artificial openings between ducts (the severed ends of the vas deferens are reconnected in an attempt to restore fertility in men who have had a vasectomy
vesiculectomy excision of the seminal vesicle
circumcision surgical removal of the prepuce (foreskin)
hydrocelectomy surgical removal of a hydrocele
radical prostatectomy (RP) excision of the prostate gland with its capsule, seminal vesicles, vas deferens, & sometimes pelvic lymph nodes; performed by a retropubic or perineal approach, or laparoscopically; used to treat prostate cancer
suprapubic prostatectomy excision of the prostate gland through an abdominal incision made above the pubic bone & through an incision in the bladder; used to treat benign prostate hyperplasia & prostate cancer (also called suprapubic transvesical prostatectomy)
transurethral incision of the prostate gland (TUIP) a surgical procedure that widens the urethra by making a few small incisions in the bladder neck & the prostate gland. No prostate tissue is removed. TUIP may be used instead of TURP when the prostate gland is less enlarged.
transurethral microwave thermotherapy (TUMT) a treatment that eliminates excess tissue present in benign prostatic hyperplasia by using heat generated by microwave
transurethral resection of the prostate gland (TURP) successive pieces of the prostate gland tissue are resected by using a resectoscope inserted through the urethra. The capsule is left intact; usually performed when the enlarged prostate gland interferes with urination.
TULIP transurethral laser incision of the prostate gland
VLIP Visual laser incision of the prostate gland
PVP photoselective vaporization of the prostate gland
transrectal ultrasound an ultrasound procedure used to diagnose prostate cancer. Sound waves are sent & received by a transducer in the form of a probe that is placed into the rectum. The sound waves are transformed into an image of the prostate gland.
prostate-specific antigen (PSA) a blood test that measures the level of prostate-specific antigen in the blood. Elevated test results may indicate the presence of prostate cancer or excess prostate tissue, as found in benign prostatic hyperplasia.
digital rectal examination (DRE) physical exam-the physician inserts a finger into the rectum & feels the size & shape of the prostate through the rectal wall. (To screen for BPH & cancer.) BPH usually presents as a uniform, nontender enlargement; cancer as a stony hard nodule.
andropathy disease of the male (specific to the male, such as testitis)
aspermia condition of without sperm (or semen or ejaculation)
oligospermia condition of scanty sperm (in the semen; may contribute to infertility)
spermatolysis dissolution (destruction) of sperm
azoospermia refers to the lack of live sperm in the semen, whereas aspermia generally means no semen or ejaculation & therefore no sperm. Azoospermia & oligospermia are terms frequently used in relation to male infertility.
acquired immmunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) a disease that affects the body's immune system, transmitted by exchange of body fluid during the sexual act, reuse of contaminated needles, or receiving contaminated blood transfusions (also called Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome)
artificial insemination introduction of semen into the vagina by artificial means
chlamydia sexually transmitted disease, also called a Silent STD because many people aren't aware they have it. Symptoms when it is serious are painful urination & discharge from the penis, & genital itching, vaginal discharge, & bleeding between periods in women.
coitus sexual intercourse between male & female (also called copulation)
condom cover for the penis worn during coitus to prevent conception & the spread of sexually transmitted disease
ejaculation ejection of semen from the male urethra
genital herpes sexually transmitted disease caused by Herpesvirus hominis type 2 (also called Herpes Simplex Virus)
gonads male & female sex glands
gonorrhea contagious, inflammatory sexually transmitted disease caused by a bacterial organism that affects the mucous membranes of the genitourinary system
heterosexual person who is attracted to a member of the opposite sex
homosexual person who is attracted to a member of the same sex
human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) a type of retrovirus that causes AIDS. HIV infects T-helper cells of the immune system, allowing for opportunistic infections such as candidiasis, Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia, tuberculosis, & Kaposi sarcoma
human papillomavirus (HPV) a prevalent sexually transmitted disease causing benign or cancerous growths in male & female genitals (also called Veneral Warts)
orgasm climax of sexual stimulation
prosthesis an artificial replacement of an absent body part (a penile prosthesis may be implanted to treat erectile dysfunction if first-line therapies are not effective)
puberty period when secondary sex characteristics develop & the ability to reproduce sexually begins
sexually transmitted disease (STD) diseases, such as syphilis, gonorrhea, & genital herpes, transmitted during sexual contact (also called venereal disease & sexually transmitted infection [STI])
sterilization process that renders an individual unable to produce offspring
syphilis chronic infection caused by the bacterium Treponema pallidum, usually transmitted by sex, may be acquired in utero, or through direct contact w/tissue. If untreated, it progresses through 3 clinical states. The initial infection quickly becomes systemic.
trichomoniasis sexually transmitted disease caused by Trichomonas. It infects the genitourinary tract. Men may be asymptomatic or may develp urethritis, an enlarged prostate gland, or epididymitis. Women have vaginal itching, dysuria, & vaginal or urethral discharge.
Created by: wututor