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Unit 4

Political Powers and Achievements

centralized controlled by a single government or person
decentralized loosely organized system in which many people have power in different areas, but they are not unified by any one government or person
feudalism a decentralized system of rule in Europe during the Middle Ages based on land ownership. There was a rigid social hierarchy involving kings/monarchs, lords/nobles, vassals/knights, and serfs/peasants
manorialism an economic system used in Western Europe in the Middle Ages based mainly on farming in which a lord enjoyed a variety of rights over the land and the people living on it
social mobility the ability to become part of a social class other than the one someone is born into
secular attitudes, activities, or other things that have no religious or spiritual basis
power vacuum a condition that exists when someone has lost control and no one has replaced them
divergent tending to develop differently, or in different directions
Muhammad an Arab political, social and religious leader and the founder of Islam
The Qur'an the central religious text of Islam, which Muslims believe to be a revelation from God
The Five Pillars of Islam the core beliefs and practices of Islam
hajj the Muslim pilgrimage to Mecca that takes place in the last month of the year, and that all Muslims are expected to make at least once during their lifetime
caliph the chief Muslim civil and religious ruler, regarded as the successor of Muhammad
caliphate an Islamic empire ruled by a caliph
Genghis Khan the founder and first Great Khan of the Mongol Empire
Pax Mongolica the period of peace and stability in Europe and Asia during the Mongol Empire that took place during the 1200s and 1300s
Created by: vvanwagoner