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A&P Test 3 muscles

A&P Test 3

Articulations Joints (where two bones meet)
Joints are characterized by... How much movement is allowed
Synarthroses Immovable joints
Amphiarthrses Slightly movable joints
Diarthroses -Free movable joints -bones dont touch -Have joint cavities -Completly encolsed by articular capsule (2 layers) -
What is the external layer of the articular capsule called? Fibrous capsule (dense connective tissue that is contionious with periosteum)
What is the inner layer of the articular capsule called? Synovial membrane -made of loose connective tissue
Musles DONT PUSH Muscles only pull!
Flexion -In anterior and posterior planes -bending of a joints so parts get closer
Extension -Back to the anatomical position
Abduction Away from our midline
Adduction Towards the midline
Rotation Turning of a bone along its own long axis (twisting head, hip, shoulder joints)
Circumduction Moving a limb so that it describes a cone in space
Supination Lateral rotation of the radius (thumbs lateral, anatomical position)
Pronation Medial rotation of the radius (thumbs medial)
Protraction Moving part anteriorly
Retraction Bring protracted part back
Elevation Superior movement
Depression Inferior movement
Dorsiflexion Curling foot up
Plantar flexion Pointing the toes down
Inversion Soles of feet face medial
Eversion Soles of feet face lateral
What are the two types of fascia? Superficial and Deep
Superficial fascia -Deep to the skin -made of loose ct -adipose -water
Important functions of superficial fascia -stores water and fat -insulation -protection -pathway for nerves and blood vessels
Deep Fascia -made of dense connective tissue -surrounds organs
What are skeletal muscles protected by? Connective tissue covering
Epimysium CT covering that covers entire muscle
Perimysium Surrounds fassicle
Endomysium Surrounds muscle fibers
Tendons Rope like extensions of epimysium
Aponeurosis Sheet like extensions of epimysium
Basic characteristics of muscle tissues Excitability, conductivity, contractibility, extensibility, elasticity
Fuctions of muscle tissues Movement, stability, heat production
Kinds of muscle tissue Cardiac, smooth, skeletal
Origin -Least moveable part of attachment -most proximal end
Belly -muscle portion
Insertion -more moveable point of attachment -Distal End
Sphincter -circular, surrounds and opening
Synergistic -work together to produce a movement
Agonist Muscle that performs most of the work
Antagonist produce opposite movements
Fixators Sabilize joints
extrinsic muscles originate outside but insert inside
Intrinsic completly inside
Naming Muscles -location -shape -action -number of origins -size -direction of fibers
What is the name of an individual muscle cell? myoFIBER
What does the sarcolemma surround? a group of myofibrils
Sarcoplasm -cytoplasm of a muscle cell -contains large amounts of glycosomes and myoglobin
What does the sarcoplasmic reticulum divide? the sarcoplasm into individual myofibrils
Sarcomere extends to which discs? Z disc to Z disc
I Band Just thin
A Band Thick and thin
H zone In the middle of an A band, only thick
M line In the middle of H zone
Thick filaments Myosin
Thin Filaments Actin
Thin filaments contain what other two molecules? Tropomyosin (long lines that cover holes) and troponin (holds tropomyosin)
Sarcoplasmic reticulum encircles what? Each myofibril
Sarcoplasmic reticulum duties: -Delivers nutrients -Stores Ca ++ in the cisternae
What does a triad contain? 2 cisternae of SR and 1 T tubule
Resting Membrane potential is determined by... Concentration gradients of NA+ and K+, and the membrane permiability of Na+ and K+
Sodium Potassium Pump 3 Na out 2 K in
Treppe Increase in strength
Incomplete tetany sustained but quivering contraction
Isometric contractions same length
Isotonic contraction same tension
If tension is greater then load... muscle shortens and load moves (isotonic)
If load is greater then tension... muscle is unable to shorten (isometric)
SLOW TWITCH contract slowly tire less quickly small diameter more mitochondria better blood supply more myoglobin dark meat
FAST TWITCH contract quickly tire more easily larger diameter less mitochondria less developed blood supply less myoglobin light meat
Effects of Exercise Hypertrophy - increase in the volume of an organ or tissue due to the enlargement of its component cells. -Increased strength -Increased endurance
Flaccid = no tone
Created by: gotmilk954