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Chapter 5

Acquiring Medical Language 2nd Edition

TermDefinition
aphasia ah-FAY-zhah inability to speak
ataxia ah-TAK-see-ah lack of coordination
catatonia KAT-ah-TOH-nee-ah condition characterized by reduced muscle tone
delirium deh-LEER-ee-um brief loss of mental function
dementia da-MEN-chah loss/decline in mental function
dyskinesia dis-kih-NEE-zhah difficulty moving
dyslexia dis-LEK-see-ah difficulty reading
dysphasia dis-FAY-zhah difficulty speaking
dystonia dis-TOH-nee-ah condition characterized by involuntary muscle movements
insomnia in-SOM-nee-ah inability to sleep
myoclonus mai-AWK-loh-nus muscle twitching
myospasm MAI-oh-spazm involuntary muscle contraction
neurasthenia NUR-as-THEN-ee-ah nerve weakness
somnambulism sawm-NAM-byoo-liz-um sleep walking
syncope SIN-koh-pee fainting; losing consciousness due to temporary loss of blood flow to brain
cephalalgia SEH-ful-AL-jah head pain
cephalodynia SEH-fah-loh-DIH-nee-ah head pain
encephalalgia in-SE-ful-AL-jah brain pain
neuralgia nur-AL-jah nerve pain
neurodynia NUR-oh-DIH-nee-ah nerve pain
hemiparesis HEH-mee-puh-REE-sis partial paralysis on half the body
hemiplegia HEH-mee-PLEE-jah paralysis on half the body
monoparesis MAW-noh-puh-REE-sis partial paralysis of one limb
monoplegia MAW-noh-PLEE-jah paralysis of one limb
paralysis puh-RAH-lu-sis complete loss of sensation and motor function
paresis puh-REE-sis partial paralysis characterized by varying degrees of sensation and motor function
causalgia kaw-ZAL-jah painful sensation of burning
dysesthesia DIS-es-THEE-zhah bad feeling
hyperesthesia HAI-per-es-THEE-zhah increased sensation
paresthesia PAR-es-THEE-zhah abnormal sensation (usually numbness or tingling in the skin)
pseudesthesia SOO-des-THEE-zhah false sensation
synesthesia SIN-es-THEE-zhah condition where one sensation is experienced as another
acrophobia AK-roh-FOH-bee-ah fear of heights
agoraphobia ah-GOR-ah-FOH-bee-ah fear of outdoor spaces
hydrophobia HAI-druh-FOH-bee-ah fear of water
kleptomania KLEP-toh-MAY-nee-ah desire to steal
photophobia FOH-toh-FOH-bee-ah excessive sensitivity to light
pyromania PAI-roh-MAY-nee-ah desire to set fire
echoencephalography EH-koh-in-SEH-fah-LAW-grah-fee procedure used to examine the brain using sound waves
electroencephalography (EEG) eh-LEK-troh-in-SEH-fah-LAW-grah-fee procedure used to examine the electrical activity of the brain
lumbar puncture (LP) LUM-bar PUNK-chir inserting a needle into the lumbar region of the spine in order to collect spinal fluid, commonly called a spinal tap
cerebral angiography seh-REE-bral AN-gee-AW-grah-fee procedure used to examine blood vessels in the brain
magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) mag-NET-ik REH-zawn-ants AN-gee-AW-grah-fee procedure used to examine blood vessels
myelogram MAI-el-oh-gram image of the spinal cord, usually done using x-ray
positron emission tomography (PET) scan PAWZ-ih-trawn ee-MISH-un taw-MAW-gra-fee an imaging procedure that uses radiation (positrons) to produce cross sections of the brain
transcranial Doppler sonography tranz-KRAY-nee-al DAW-plir saw-NAW-gra-fee an imaging technique that produces an image of the brain using sound waves sent through the skull
cerebellitis ser-eh-bell-AI-tis inflammation of the cerebellum
cerebral atrophy seh-REE-bral A-troh-fee wasting away of brain tissue
duritis dur-AI-tis inflammation of the dura
encephalocele en-SEF-ah-loh-SEEL hernia of the brain (normally through a defect in the skull)
hematoma HEE-mah-TOH-mah a tumorlike mass made up of blood
cranial hematoma KRAY-nee-al HEE-mah-TOH-mah a hematoma beneath the skull
epidural hematoma EH-pi-DIR-al HEE-mah-TOH-mah a hematoma located on top of the dura
intracerebral hematoma IN-trah-se-REE-bral HEE-mah-TOH-mah a hematoma located inside the brain
subdural hematoma sub-DIR-al HEE-mah-TOH-mah a hematoma located beneath the dura
macrocephaly MA-kroh-SEH-fah-lee abnormally large head
microcephaly MAI-kroh-SEH-fah-lee abnormally small head
meningocele meh-NIN-goh-seel a hernia of the meninges
myelocele MAI-eh-loh-SEEL a hernia of the spinal cord
myelomalacia MAI-eh-loh-mah-LAY-shah abnormal softening of the spinal cord
myelomeningocele MAI-eh-loh-meh-NIN-goh-seel a hernia of the spinal cord and meninges
neuritis nir-AI-tis nerve inflammation
neuroma nir-OH-mah a nerve tumor
neurosclerosis NIR-oh-skleh-ROH-sis hardening of nerves
polyneuritis PAW-lee-nir-AI-tis inflammation of multiple nerves
agnosia AG-noh-zhah inability to comprehend
apathy A-pah-thee lack of emotion
hyperkinesia HAI-per-kih-NEE-shah increase in muscle movement or activity
neurasthenia NIR-as-THEN-ee-ah nerve weakness
neuroglycopenia NIR-oh-GLAI-koh-PEE-nee-ah deficiency of sugar that interferes with normal brain activity
nystagmus nih-STAG-mus involuntary back and forth eye movements
prosopagnosia PRAW-soh-pag-NOH-zhah inability to recognize faces
anesthesiologist A-neh-STHEE-zee-AW-loh-jist doctor who specializes in anesthesiology
afferent nerve A-fir-ent nirv a nerve that carries impulses toward the central nervous system
efferent nerve EH-fir-ent nirv a nerve that carries impulses away from the central nervous system
neurogenic NIR-oh-JIN-ik originating from/created by nerves
psychiatrist sai-KAI-ah-trist doctor who specializes in the treatment of the mind
psychiatry sai-KAI-ah-tree branch of medicine that focuses on the treatment of the mind
psychogenic SAI-koh-JIN-ik originating in/created by the mind
psychologist sai-KAW-loh-jist doctor who specializes in the study of the mind
psychology sai-KAW-loh-jee branch of medicine that focuses on the study of the mind
psychosomatic SAI-koh-soh-MA-tik pertaining to the relationship between the body and the mind
idiopathic IH-dee-oh-PAH-thik having no known cause or origin
interictal IN-ter-IK-tal time between seizures
postictal post-IK-tal time after a seizure
preictal pree-IK-tal time before a seizure
tonic TAW-nik pertaining to muscle tone (normally weak or unresponsive)
clonus CLAH-nis muscle spasm or twitching
tonic-clonic seizure TAW-nik CLAH-nik SEE-zhir a seizure characterized by both a tonic and a clonic phase
cerebrovascular accident (CVA) seh-REE-broh-VAS-kyoo-lar AK-sih-dent an accident involving the blood vessels of the brain
stroke STROHK loss of brain function caused by interruption of blood flow/supply to the brain
hemorrhagic stroke HEM-oh-RA-jik STROHK a stroke where the blood loss is caused by the rupture of a blood vessel
ischemic stroke ihs-KEE-mik STROHK a stroke where the blood loss is caused by a blockage
transient ischemic attack (TIA) TRAN-zee-ent ih-SKEE-mik ah-TAK a “mini-stroke” caused by the blockage of a blood vessel, which resolves (goes away) within 24 hours
cerebrovascular disease seh-REE-broh-VAS-kyoo-lar dih-ZEEZ a disease of the blood vessels of the brain
cerebral aneurysm seh-REE-bral AN-yir-IZ-um the widening or abnormal dilation of a blood vessel in the brain
cerebral arteriosclerosis seh-REE-bral ar-TIH-ree-oh-skleh-ROH-sis the hardening of an artery in the brain
cerebral atherosclerosis seh-REE-bral ATH-er-oh-skleh-ROH-sis the hardening of an artery in the brain caused by the buildup of fatty plaque
cerebral embolism seh-REE-bral EM-boh-lih-zum the blockage of a blood vessel in the brain caused by a foreign object (embolus) such as fat or bacteria
cerebral thrombosis seh-REE-bral throm-BOH-sis the blockage of a blood vessel in the brain caused by a blood clot
craniomalacia KRAY-nee-oh-mah-LAY-shah abnormal softening of the skull
craniosclerosis KRAY-nee-oh-skleh-ROH-sis abnormal hardening of the skull
craniostenosis KRAY-nee-oh-steh-NOH-sis abnormal narrowing of the skull
craniosynostosis KRAY-nee-oh-SIN-aw-STOH-sis premature fusing of the skull bones
hydrocephaly HAI-droh-SEH-fah-lee abnormal accumulation of spinal fluid in the brain
astrocytoma ASS-troh-sai-TOH-mah a tumor of arising from astrocyte glial cells
ganglioma GAN-glee-OH-mah ganglion tumor
glioblastoma GLEE-oh-blas-TOH-mah a brain tumor arising from glioblast cells
meningioma meh-NIN-jee-OH-mah tumor of the meninges
cerebellitis SEH-rah-bell-AI-tis inflammation of the cerebellum
cerebromeningitis seh-REE-broh-MEN-in-JAI-tis inflammation of the brain and meninges
encephalitis in-SEF-ah-LAI-tis inflammation of the brain
encephalomyelitis in-SEF-ah-loh-MAI-eh-LAI-tis inflammation of the brain and spinal cord
encephalomyeloneuropathy in-SEF-ah-loh-MAI-el-oh-nir-AW-pah-thee disease of the brain, spinal cord, and nerves
encephalopathy in-SEF-ah-LAW-pah-thee disease of the brain
encephalopyosis in-SEF-ah-loh-pai-OH-sis a pus-filled abscess in the brain
gangliitis GAN-glee-AI-tis inflammation of a ganglion
intracerebral hemorrhage IN-trah-sih-REE-bral HIH-moh-rij excessive bleeding inside the brain
meningopathy MEH-nin-GAW-pah-thee disease of the meninges
meningitis MEH-nin-JAI-tus inflammation of the meninges
meningoencephalitis meh-NIN-goh-in-SEF-ah-LAI-tis inflammation of the meninges and brain
myelitis MAI-eh-LAI-tis inflammation of the spinal cord
myelodysplasia MAI-eh-loh-dis-PLAY-zhah defective formation of the spinal cord
myelopathy MAI-el-AW-pah-thee disease of the spinal cord
neuroarthropathy NIR-oh-ar-THRAW-pah-thee disease of the joint associated with nerves
neuroencephalomyelopathy NIR-oh-in-SEF-ah-loh-MAI-el-AW-pah-thee disease of the nerves, brain, and spinal cord
neuropathy nir-AW-pah-thee disease of the nervous system
poliomyelitis POH-lee-oh-MAI-el-AI-tis inflammation of the gray matter of the spinal cord
polyneuropathy PAW-lee-nir-AW-pah-thee disease affecting multiple nerves
amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) a-MAI-aw-TROH-fik LAT-tih-ral skleh-ROH-sis a degenerative disease of the central nervous system causing loss of muscle control. Literally, the hardening (sclerosis) of the nerve cells on the sides (lateral) of the spine leading to the loss of muscle tissue from disuse.
anorexia a-noh-REK-see-ah an eating disorder characterized by the patient’s refusal to eat
autism AH-tiz-um a psychiatric disorder characterized by withdrawal from communication with others; the patient is focused only on the self
bulimia boo-LEE-mee-ah an eating disorder characterized by overeating and usually followed by forced vomiting
cerebral palsy seh-REE-bral PAL-zee paralysis caused by damage to the area of the brain responsible for movement
dysphoria dis-FOR-ee-ah a negative emotional state
epilepsy eh-pih-LEP-see a disease marked by seizures
euphoria yoo-FOR-ee-ah a positive emotional state
hypomania HAI-poh-MAY-nee-ah a mental state just below mania
manic depression (bipolar) MAN-ik de-PREH-shun a psychiatric disorder characterized by alternating bouts of excitement and depression
myasthenia mai-as-THEH-nee-ah muscle weakness
narcolepsy NAR-coh-LEP-see a disease characterized by sudden, uncontrolled sleepiness
neurosis neh-ROH-sis a nerve condition
psychosis sai-KOH-sis a mind condition
psychopathy sai-KAW-pah-thee a mental illness
schizophrenia SKIT-zoh-FREH-nee-ah a mental illness characterized by delusions, hallucinations, and disordered speech
anesthetic an-es-THET-ik a drug that causes loss of sensation
general anesthetic JEH-nir-al an-es-THET-ik anesthetic that causes complete loss of consciousness
local anesthetic LOH-kal an-es-THET-ik anesthetic that does not affect consciousness
regional anesthetic REE-jih-nal an-es-THET-ik anesthetic that is injected into a nerve causing loss of sensation over a particular area
topical anesthetic TAW-pih-kal an-es-THET-ik local anesthesia applied to the surface of the area to be anesthetized
epidural anesthetic eh-pih-DUH-ral an-es-THET-ik anesthetic applied in the dural region of the spinal cord
analgesic an-al-JEE-zik a drug that relieves pain
anticonvulsant AN-tee-kon-VUL-sant a drug that opposes convulsions
antidepressant AN-tee-deh-PREH-sant a drug that opposes depression
antipsychotic AN-tee-sai-KAW-tik a drug that opposes psychoses
anxiolytic ANG-zee-oh-LIH-tik a drug that lessens anxiety
hypnotic hip-NAWT-ik a drug that aids sleep
neuropharmacology nir-oh-FAR-mah-KAW-loh-jee the study of the effects of drugs on the nervous system
psychopharmacology SAI-koh-FAR- mah-KAW-loh-jee the study of the effects of drugs on mental processes
pyschotropic SAI-koh-TROH-pik drugs that are able to turn the mind
thrombolytic THRAWM-boh-LIT-ik a drug that dissolves clots
cerebrotomy seh-ree-BRAW-toh-mee incision into the brain
chemotherapy KEE-moh-THER-ah-pee treatment using chemicals
craniectomy KRAY-nee-EK-toh-mee removal of a piece of the skull
craniotomy KRAY-nee-AW-toh-mee incision into the skull
endarterectomy EN-dar-tir-EK-toh-mee removal of the inside of an artery
endovascular neurosurgery EN-doh-VAS-kyoo-lar NIR-oh-SIR-jir-ee surgery on the nervous system performed by entering the body through blood vessels
lobectomy loh-BEK-toh-mee removal of a lobe
lobotomy loh-BAW-toh-mee incision into a lobe
neurectomy nir-EK-toh-mee removal of a nerve
neurolysis nir-AW-lih-sis destruction of nerve tissue
neuroplasty NIR-oh-PLAS-tee reconstruction of a nerve
neurorrhaphy nir-OR-ah-fee suturing of a nerve (often the severed ends of a nerve)
neurotomy nir-AW-toh-mee incision into a nerve
ADHD attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder
ALS amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (Lou Gehrig’s disease)
CNS central nervous system
CP cerebral palsy
CSF cerebrospinal fluid
CVA cerebrovascular accident
EEG electroencephalogram
EMG electromyogram
ICP intracranial pressure
LOC level of consciousness
LP lumbar puncture
MRA magnetic resonance angiography
MS multiple sclerosis
OCD obsessive compulsive disorder
PET positron emission tomography
PNS peripheral nervous system
TIA transient ischemic attack
Created by: sdolic