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Geography

grade 9 Ontario

TermDefinition
birth rate # of births/total pop. x1000
death rate # of deaths/total pop. x1000
natural increase rate birth rate-death rate
immigration rate # of immigrants/total pop. x1000
emigration # of emigrants/total pop. x1000
net migration rate immigration rate-emigration rate
population growth rate natural increase rate + net migration rate
doubling time 70 / population growth rate
push factors war, poverty, lack of education
population distribution pattern of where people live in a region/country
metis descendants of europeans and aboriginals
pull factors jobs, educational opportunities, low taxes
population pyramid graph showing age and sex structure of a population
inuit aboriginal people from the arctic
racism faced by many of the First Nations people and adds to increased levels of poverty
demography study of populations
population density # of people/ km^2
reservations where many First Nations people were relocated by the government
census a survey that captures a wide range of data about the population
economic immigrants skilled worker, temp foreign workers, business
number of points to be accepted under skilled worker 67
people in Canada live primarily within 500km of U.S. border
Komagatu Maru set sail from Hong Kong
a refugee may be persecuted because of political opinion, religion, sexual orientation
stages? stage 1- little development stage 2 - steady birth rate, slightly decreasing death rate stage 3 - falling birth rate (slower), falling death rate stage 4 - steady birth rate, steady death rate (even) stage 5 - steady death rate, falling birth rate
specific land claim Involves a treaty from the past being taken into account and upheld in the future
comprehensive land claim modern treaties made between indigenous people and the government
comprehensive vs specific both involve rights to land, take long court processes and government involvment
generations baby boomers - 1946-1964 gen x - 1965-1979 millennials (gen Y) - 1980-1996 Gen Z - 1997-2010 Gen alpha - 2011-present
how to read population pyramid longer bars = larger amount of people scale along bottom and age up middle female right male left (different colours)
skilled workers need ______ to be accepted to Canada set up work high degrees of training skills needed
refugees need to move for safety may be pursued by threat (possibly for political opinion, sexual orientation or religion)
food security access to affordable, nutritious and healthy food
old growth forests forests that have not been logged
boreal forest largest forest region in Canada
mixed forest the region of forest we live in, mixed types of trees and forest
selective cutting most expensive type of forestry but also most sustainable
clear cutting cheap type of forestry least sustainable
underground mining most expensive mining method, used to extract valuable ores like gold nickel and copper
3R's diagram Reduce, not using, reuse, repurpose, recycle, will be made into something else none, landfill
sustainability model shows how we can make things good for people, the planet and still profit from it, shows what needs to be done in order to help the present and future
issues First Nations people face due to mineral being found on reserves kicked off land mining contaminates water supply air contaminated disregarded, companies buy land off government
agribusiness mass produced food made with chemicals. Unhealthy but cheap
urban agriculture sustainable and healthy, helps people who don't have food security, affordable
agribusiness vs urban agriculture both affordable, easy access
reading infographics name, target audience, message, sources, colour, text and info
earths crust top thin layer of earth that humans live on
weather day to day changes in temperature and precipitation of an area
humus dark, nutrient rich soil
magma molten rock
calving the process of ice chunks breaking off a glacier
permafrost permanently frozen soil
elevation as it increases, temperature s decrease
weathering process of breaking large rocks into smaller sediments
fossil fuels coal, oil, natural gas
calcification the soil has no water and plant dies of dehydration
leaching too much water in the soil and plants die because they are water logged
intuition mountains young, jagged, near arctic cities like Iqaluit
western cordillera young, jagged, near cities like Vancouver
Appalachians round, near cities like Halifax
policies that will reduce fossil fuels increase gas prices, cease developments of oilseeds, reduce amounts of gas cars
climate graphs graph of a city's temperature and precipitation
greenhouse effect sun rays hit earth in heat, C02 and other gases trap heat in the earth's atmosphere
rock cycle magma erupts and turns into igneous rock. erosion and weathering causes igneous rock to turn into sedimentary rock. Heat and pressure makes both these into metamorphic rock. convergence may turn any of these rocks back into magma.
GPS global positioning system based on location gets you from A to B
GIS geographic information system mapping tool to analyze information such as avg income or elevation
Map must have need title, underlined with ruler name at bottom right corner date at bottom right corner compass or north arrow scale (usually given)
earth layers core, mantle, crust
mantle molten liquid, magma
core solid middle of earth
crust (where we live) varies in height, up to 50km thick
Plates tectonics earth plates are in constant motion
divergence when two plates come apart, most common in oceans, creates new earth, most volcanos are on divergent plates
convergence when one plate slides underneath another in a process called subduction, crust is melted
continental creates mountains and ridges (including Everest)
transform plates move roughly parallel to each other in opposite directions can result in dangerous earthquake generally in range of 5.5-7.5
Canada's landforms 3 main types, low lands, high lands and shield
Appalachian mountains Atlantic, old, worn down by ice and water, around 1000m high, many types of forests, create glacial valleys
western cordillera includes BC, Yukon and parts of Alberta. "rockies" separated by plateaus, around 3000m high, jagged (younger), glacial fed lakes, U shaped valleys
Intuition mountains rugged peaks, around 2000m high, far north (Nunavut), too cold for trees
Great Lakes - St. Lawerence lowlands southwestern Ontario, around the larger water areas, rolling irregular landscape with glacial hills, holds 60% of Canada's population, easy transportation
Hudson Bay lowlands north Ontario and Manitoba, swamps and forests, flat
arctic lowlands Nunavut area, short growing season, sparse vegetation, tundra, treeless and cold dry climate
interior plains Alberta area, large sections of SK, Manitoba and NWT, soil is ideal for wheat growing and flat
Canadian shield covers central Canada, 4 billion year old rocks, mostly carniforous forest, few areas suited for agriculture, many lakes
maritime climate a climate with a temp range less than 25C and precipitation over 1000mm
continental climate a climate with a temp range over 25C and less than 1000mm of precipitation
growing season avg # of days of a year with a 24hr average temp of at least 6C
temp range difference between highest and lowest temperature
Common GHG's Carbon Dioxide (CO2), Methane, Nitrus oxide (N2O)
Carbon sink when carbon is removed from the atmosphere and stored for a period of time
Carbon source when carbon is added to the atmosphere (usually by burning it)
annual precipitation total amount of precipitation throughout the whole year
LOWERN Latitude, Ocean currents, Winds and air masses, Elevation, relief, Near water
Renewable resources resources that can be regenerated if used carefully
non renewable resources resources that are limited and cannot be replaced once they are used up
flow resources resources that are replaced by natural actions and they must be used when and where they occur or be lost
natural sources things found in total stock that people find useful
factory farm mass production of farmed goods (meat and other products) usually by big corporations
Chinese head tax Only Chinese affected,, continuously increased to decrease their immigration to Canada. 1895-50$, 1900-100$, 1903-500$, 1923-1947-banned all Chinese from immigrating
Japanese containment camps in WW2, Canada was at war with Japan, treated all as enemy, relocated them to isolated locations in BC. Crowded housing, no electricity or running water, all their things and possessions were sold, most were born and raised Canadian
the St.Louis (1939) boat came from Germany carrying 907 jewish refugees, went to many other countries where they were turned away (USA, Cuba) , Canada sent them away, boat returned to Germany and 294 jews died in concentration camps
Osoyoos in BC Government took their best land and led them to poverty. They created attractions for their area and created jobs for themselves to escape poverty
James Bay Cree made a land agreement, largest in history, was able to develop itself, stopped building of a large dam on their land, has many issues with success rate of youth
Scheffrville destroyed by mining, received nothing, not allowed to discuss what happened on their land, took wealth from their land and left them with the waste
Manitoba Cree Nation made a dam that destroyed their way of life, made extensive damage, were supposed to be consulted but weren't, had to pay large amount of money to own their own land.
Cree of Attawapiskat have no money for education, do not have a good deal with diamond mine and make little money from it, not enough money for all kids to go to school, but have no jobs
Iqaluit Inuit young pop., territory created in 1999 so they would have some control, languages recognized, metals found in area, people rely on government
Trade definition Trade is the exchange of goods and services between one country and another.
Free trade Free trade is a policy to eliminate discrimination against imports and exports. Buyers and sellers from different economies may voluntarily trade without a government applying tariffs, quotas, subsidies or prohibitions on goods and services.
Fair trade Fair trade is an institutional arrangement designed to help producers in developing countries achieve better trading conditions.
GDP GDP represents the monetary value of all goods and services produced within a nation's geographic borders over a specified period of time.
NAFTA North American Free Trade Agreement, replaced by USMCA, an agreement between North American countries over trade
Manufacturing location factors Environment, Cost of building, Workers available, climate, cost of transport, accessibility
Tariffs The extra cost put on imports and exports
industry types primary, secondary, tertiary, quaternary
primary industries take natural resources to convert them into useful things (logging, mining)
secondary industries the manufacturing industry, (building furniture, making rings)
tertiary industries the service industry, (selling furniture, selling rings or jewelry)
quaternary planning for the future
Canada's population distribution most people in Ontario, very few in northern territories, most near US border, near major waterways,
Canada's population growth major cities are growing, as well as the entire population
Created by: Miraposluns