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Russia

The first phase of collectivisation: 1929-31

QuestionAnswer
What triggered it? After the grain gathering crisis of 1927-28, peasants were resisting the requisitioning, but also not selling the food at market.
Who did Stalin blame for the peasants resisting requisitioning? How did he react? Stalin blamed the Kulaks. In Autumn 1929 a committee was set up to investigate Kulak resistance. In December 1929, Stalin announced the 'liquidation of the Kulaks'.
What was the aim of identifying the Kulaks as a class enemy? It was to scare the Kulaks as to encourage them to join the collectivised State farms.
What did Stalin send out to 'liquidise' the Kulaks and to set out the establishment of the collective farms? The Red Army and secret police. He also sent 25K volunteers from the Urban Workers party to assist. The 25K were not given any instructions on how to distinguish the rich peasant from the poor peasant.
Were peasants willing to identify Kulaks ? No most weren't for a few reasons for example, many Kulaks were friends with other peasants.
What were the two categories of Kulak? Counter revolutionaries who were to be shot or sent to forced labour camps. Active opponents of collectivisation who were to be deported to Siberia.
What was taken from the Kulaks and why? Land, equipment, animals, tools and buildings were taken to be used in the collectivised farms.
What did the decree was passed on the 1st of Feb 1930 legitimise? It legitimised all necessary actions made against the Kulaks. It gave local party organisations the power to use 'necessary measures' against them.
How many people had been put into labour camps etc. by the end of the collectivisation process? >=10 million people were displaced from their homes in towns and villages.
State the methods how peasants resisted collectivisation. Riots. Burnt crops. Raids to recapture animals took place. Women's protests = one goal stopping grain requisitioning. Slaughter animals and then eat or sell them.
By the end of February 1930, the party claimed that half of all peasant households had been collectivised. Was this true? No. In actual fact the most enterprising peasants had either been shot or deported & the Bolsheviks had only received between 25-30% of cattle etc.
Did the collectivised peasants do any work on the State farms? Not very much. Peasants weren't in the mood to work hard as they'd been forced out of their homes to work in a foreign environment. There was high resistance.
What was Stalin forced to do? Stalin gave peasants the choice to go back home to their private farms. For a temporary period the new farming methods were aborted,
Created by: supercars