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Mediterranean societ

Greek polis, Roman republic, and Roman Empire

During what period was Greece divided into several independent and often warring kingdoms? 700 BCE
What were the Grecian king's armies made up of? Hoplite soldiers who came from the class of small landowning farmers, merchants, and artisans.
What was a growing issue within the kingdoms with the hoplite soldiers? They were growing increasingly discontent with the power of their kings.
What did the frustration of these hoplites cause? The rise of tyrants in 650 to 500 BCE.
What did the tyrants successfully do? They overthrew many of the kings.
What did the tyrants do unsuccessfully? They were not able to make themselves sole ruler and they were overthrown by hoplites.
What did the overthrow of tyrants bring? The ushering of the period of Greek Polis.
During what period was Greece divided into several (often warring) city-states, called Polis? 600 BCE to 300 BCE
What was the form of government in each Polis? It varied among the Polis.
Which famous Polis had a limited democracy? Athens
Which famous Polis had an oligarchy? Sparta
What was also a common form of government in the Polis? Monarchies
Who was the most powerful and influential Greek Polis? Athens and Sparta.
Who made short term political reforms in 594 BCE? Solon
Who brought Athens to the closest it had been to a true democracy from 461 to 429 BCE. Pericles
What percentage of people was ever allowed to participate in government in Athens at its best. 10% to 15%
Who was not allowed to participate in government? Women, foreign born, and slaves (about 30% of the population)
When did Sparta conquer the neighboring region of Messenia? 725 BCE
What did Sparta force the population of Messenia into doing? Slavery
What was the population of Messenian slaves called? Helots
When did the Helots revolt? 650 BCE
What did the Helot revolts lead to? Sparta becoming a military state
What caused the Greeks to establish Polis around the Mediterranean? Population growth and limited arable land
What did the establishment of Polis on the Mediterranean cause? The spread of Greek culture and political traditions to neighboring people, including the Romans and brought conflicts with neighboring empires like the Persians.
When did Greece succumb to invasion by their neighbor to the north? In 338 BCE
Who invaded Greece in 338 BCE? Macedonia
Was the Macedonian culture alike or different than the Greek Culture? The Macedonian culture was unique to the Greek Culture
Why did the Macedonians fancy themselves a part of Greek culture? They envied Greek achievements
When did the Macedonian King lead a combined Greek and Macedonian army to conquer the Persians? In 334 BCE
Which Macedonian King led a combined Greek and Macedonian army to conquer the Persians? Alexander the Great
What resulted from Alexander the Great leading an army to conquer the Persians? The ushering of a brief period empire heavily influenced by Greek culture.
What age was known as the age heavily influenced by Greek culture? Hellenistic Age
Like the Greeks, who also transitioned from a Kingdom to a limited representative government to an empire? Rome
From what time did tradition hold that Rome was ruled by a series of seven kings? 753 to 507 BCE
What was unique about the last Roman king? He was a tyrant and overthrown by the wealthy landowning class.
What did the overthrow of the last Roman king cause? The ushering of a period of the Roman Republic
How long did the Roman Republic last? 507 BCE to 88 BCE
What did Rome enjoy that Greece did not have? A very hospitable homeland
What was so hospitable about Rome? Long growing seasons, fertile soil, vast forest, and rich iron deposits
What was important about these advantages Rome had over Greece? It helped Rome surpass Greece in some areas of cultural and political development.
How many social classes made up the Roman Republic? Two
What were the Social classes? Wealthy patricians and plebeians who were laborers and owners of small farms.
In the early republic who maintained almost complete governmental power through its control over the main branches of government? The patrician class
What were the branches go government in the Republic of Rome? The Senate, assemblies, and elected consuls.
Why was the plebeians right to vote different than the patricians? It did not hold as much power as the patricians
What occurred over time due to the discontent and rebellion among the plebeians? Reforms were made to give them greater but never equal governmental power
Was the republican government effective or ineffective? Highly effective
What allowed Rome the ability to control all of the Italian peninsula? The effectiveness of the Roman Republic
What event led up to the transition of Rome from a republic to an empire. The war with the neighboring Carthage.
How long did the wars with Carthage last? From 264 to 202 BCE
What were wars with Carthage called? The Punic Wars
Service in the Roman army and status was contingent on what? Landownership
How many emerging factors undermined the class of small landowners? Two
What were the facts that undermined the class of small landowners? First) Extended tours of duty kept men away from their farms Second) Expansion brought a flood of cheap slave labor into the republic.
What was bad about the extended tours of duty that kept men away from their farms? It prevented men from being able to plant and harvest forcing their families to sell the land to wealthy patricians.
What was bad expansion bringing in floods of cheap slave labor into the republic? It made it difficult for soldiers to find work when they returned to civilian life.
What also led to urban unrest? The falling price of grain
What decreased the size and strength of the army? Poor landless Romans no longer qualified for military service.
What proved to be difficult with the smaller and weaker army? The Roman government had a hard time maintaining order
What happened to the patrician class while the plebeian class struggled? Many members of the patrician class accumulated vast personal estates and enormous wealth.
What did these conditions do for power hungry opportunists? They were ideal, because they allowed them to use personal wealth to win the loyalty of Rome's poor.
Who built private armies that caused Rome to fall quickly into a series of civil wars? Julius Caesar
How long did the Civil wars Julius inflected last? From 88 to 31 BCE.
What happened to the republic once the civil wars had ended in 31 BCE? Few elements of the republican form of government survived.
Where did the vast majority of governmental power rest with after the republic fell? The emperor
Who was the first emperor? Caesar Augustus
What did the Senate do after the republic fell? Give advice to emperors
What was citizen participation like in the Roman Empire? Citizen participation was only allowed on the local level
The Roman Empire continued to expand and eventually held parts of what continents? Most of Europe, parts of the Middle East, and North Africa
How was the Roman Empire administered? Through an extensive bureaucracy working through a network of cities linked by paved roads.
Cities served as what in the Roman Empire? As provincial capitals
Who ruled in the provincial capitals? Local governors
Who did the local governors have to report too? The emperor
What was Rome's time or prosperity and peace referred to? Pax Romana
How long did Pax Romana last? 31 BCE to 235 CE
What were major achievements during Pax Romana? Peace, order, prosperity, and elaborate infrastructure including paved roads and aqueducts facilitated trade, cultural exchange, technological development and the arts.
Created by: savannahreynolds