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Enlightenment & R.

(Willis) Enlightenment & Revolutions

This scientist proposed a Heliocentric Universe. Nicolaus Copernicus
This scientist used Tycho Brahe's data to calculate the orbits of the planets. Johannes Kepler
This scientist built a telescope and observed Jupiter's moons, contradicting that the Earth was the center of the universe. Galileo Galilei
Their observations and experimentation led to the scientific method. Bacon & Descartes
This scientist linked science and mathematics and presented the theory of gravity. Sir Isaac Newton
Favored an absolute monarchy and believed a powerful government can ensure social order. Thomas Hobbes
Favored limited government which protected the natural rights of the people. John Locke
Defended the freedom of thought through his writings. Voltaire
Thought of the idea of separation of powers in government. Montesquieu
Wrote the Social Contract which presented the idea that people in their natural state were essential good. Rousseau
Called for equal education and rights for women. Mary Wollstonecraft
Supported laissez faire economics and wrote the Wealth of Nations Adam Smith
The three estates in French society that separated everyone based on social class. Ancien regime
This estate was the clergy. They owned 10% of the land, collected tithes, and paid no taxes. First Estate
This estate represented the nobility. They had the top jobs in government, the army, the courts, and the church. They also paid no taxes. Second Estate
This estate represented 95% of the French population. It included the bourgeoisie, urban workers, and rural peasants. Third Estate
This is the word to represent the working middle-class in France. Bourgeoisie
the amount by which something, especially a sum of money, is too small. Deficit
He was the appointed financial advisor that tried to reduce France's debt. Jacques Necker
A list of grievences. Cahier
When the Third Estate withdrew themeselves from the Estates-General they formed the National Assembly
The pledge the National Assembly took to form a constitution. Tennis Court Oath
This group was the moderates in the French Revoluiton. National Guard
This group was the radicals in the French Revolution that favoured violent actions. Paris Commune
This first constitution in France, issued in 1789, was modled after the American Declaration of Independence. Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen
This group of radicals depanded a republic and an end to the monarchy. San-culottes
This group of radicals gained the upper hand in the Legislative Assembly and declared war on Austria, Prussia, Britian, & other European countires. Jacobins
The right to vote. Suffrage
The National Convention put this king on trial as a traitor to France. Louis XVI
This was created to deal with threats to France. They were given absolute power. Committee of Public Safety
He became the leader of the Committee of Public Safety. Maximilien Robespierre
This government system was created in reaction to the Reign of Terror. It created a constituional monarchy. Directory
He was a military hero who became the ruler of France. Napoleon Bonaparte
This word means a public vote. Plebiscite
The new law code that grated religious toleration, abolished feudalism, and embodied Enlightenment principles. However, it did not allow freedom of press or speech. Napoleonic Code
The major loss of the French fleet against the British. Battle of Trafalgar
This was a blockade that closed European ports to British goods. Continental System
The military tactic of burning crops and buildings during retreat so enemy troops have no food or shelter. Scorched-Earth Policy
The final battle of Napoleon's defeat. Battle of Waterloo
To give up the right to rule. Abdicate
The practice of restoring monarchs to the throne. Legitimacy
Pride in one's country. Nationalism
This French colony was the first nation after the U.S. to gain independence. Haiti
This individual began the Haitian Revolution in 1791. Toussaint L'Ouverture
These individuals in the Spanish colonies were the Spanish-born upper class who held the top government positions. Peninsulares
These individuals in the Spansih colonies were the children of the Peninsulares born in the colonies. Creoles
These individuals in the Spanish colonies were mixed European and Native American descent. Mestizos
These individuals in the Spanish colonies were mixed European and African descent. Mulattoes
This priest called for Mexicans to fight for their independence in September 1810. Father Miguel Hidalgo
He led an uprising to create a republic in Venezuela. He was known as "The Liberator." Simon Bolivar
He fought for independence in Argentina and fought alongside Bolivar. Jose de San Martin
The son of the Portuguese king who made Brazil an independent nation. Dom Pedro
Created by: chadmw