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SOLReview:Unit 10-11

Regional Interactions and the Renaissance

QuestionAnswer
Where did several major trading routes develop during the medieval period? Eastern Hemisphere - Europe, Africa, and Asia
What major trade patterns of the Eastern Hemisphere developed from 1000 to 1500 A.D.? 1) Silk routes across Asia to the Mediterranean Basin 2) Maritime routes across the Indian Ocean 3) Trans-Saharan routes across North Africa 4) Northern European links with the Black Sea 5) South China Sea and lands of Southeast Asia
What did regional trade networks and long distance trade routes in Asia aide? the diffusion and exchange of technology and culture
What goods were transferred along trade routes in Asia? 1) Spices from lands around the Indian Ocean 2) Textiles from India, China, the Middle East, and later Europe 3) Porcelain from China and Persia
What technologies were transferred along trade routes in Asia? 1) Paper from China through the Muslim world to Byzantium and Western Europe 2) New crops from India for making sugar 3) Waterwheels and windmills from the Middle East 4) Navigation: Compass from China, lateen sail from Indian Ocean region
What ideas were transferred along trade routes in Asia? 1) Spread of religious across hemispheres - Buddhism from China to Korea and Japan - Hinduism and Buddhism from India to Southeast Asia - Islam into West Africa, Central and Southeast Asia 2) Printing and paper money from China
What influenced Japanese cultural development? Proximity to China
Which religions coexisted as religious traditions in Japan? Shinto and Buddhism
Describe Japan's location and place. - Mountainous Japanese archipelago (four main islands) - Sea of Japan or East Sea between Japan and Asian mainland - Proximity to China and Korea
In what areas did Chinese culture influence Japanese culture? 1) Writing 2) Architecture 3) Buddhism
What are the characteristics of Shinto? - Ethnic religion unique to Japan - Importance of natural features, forces of nature, and ancestors - State religion; worship of the emperor - Coexistence with Buddhism
Where was the Axum civilization located? Near the Ethiopian Highlands and the Nile River
Where was the Zimbabwe civilization located? Near the Zambezi River, the Limpopo River, and the Indian Ocean coast
Where were the West African kingdoms located? Ghana, Mali, and Songhai were located near the Niger River and the Sahara
What were the characteristics of the Mongol Empire? - Nomadic herders - Genghis Khan - Golden Horde - Mongols converted to local religions, such as Islam, after conquest - Destroyed cities and countryside
Where did the Mongol armies invade and create an empire? Russia, China, and Muslim states in Southwest Asia
What brought important economic, cultural, and religious influences to African civilizations from other parts of the Eastern Hemisphere? Trade
When did states and empires flourish in Africa? During the medieval period
Describe the Axum civilization during the 3rd and 6th century A.D. - Became a great market in northeastern Africa - Merchants traded with civilizations beyond the Nile River
Describe the Axum civilization during the 4th century A.D. - Became a Christian kingdom - Became a politically and economically linked to Roman Egypt
Describe the Zimbabwe civilization. - City of Great Zimbabwe as capital of a prosperous empire - Utilized Indian Ocean trade routes to connect with Asia
Describe the West African Kingdoms. - Importance of gold and salt to trans-Saharan trade - City of Timbuktu as center of trade and learning - Roles of animism and Islam
What stimulated increased trade between Europe and the empires of Africa and a desire for exploration? The expanding economies of Europe
What factors contributed to European exploration in Africa? 1) Demand for gold, spices, and natural resources 2) Support for the spread of Christianity 3) Political/economic competition between European empires 4) Innovations in navigational arts 5) Pioneering role of Prince Henry the Navigator
Where did Europeans establish trading posts? Along the coast of Africa
Where was the Mayan civilization located? In the Mexican and Central American rain forests
What were the characteristics of the Maya civilization? - Represented by Chichen Itza - Groups of city-states ruled by kings - Economy based on agriculture and trade - Polytheistic religion: Pyramids
Where was the Aztec civilization located? Arid valley in central Mexico
What were the characteristics of the Aztec civilization? - Represented by Tenochtitlan - Ruled by an emperor - Economy based on agriculture and tributes from conquered peoples - Polytheistic religion: Pyramids, rituals
Where was the Incan civilization located? Located in the Andes Mountains of South America
What are the characteristics of the Incan civilization? - Represented by Machu Picchu - Ruled by an emperor - Economy based on high-altitude agriculture - Polytheistic religion - Road system
What were the major achievements of the Mayan, Aztec, and Incan civilizations? - Calendars - Mathematics - Writing and other record-keeping systems
What factors contributed to European exploration in the Western Hemisphere? 1) Demand for gold, spices, and natural resources 2) Support for the spread of Christianity 3) Political/economic competition between European empires 4) Innovations in navigational arts
Which countries established overseas empires in the Western Hemisphere? Spain - Christopher Columbus England - John Cabot
What impact did the European overseas empires have on the Western Hemisphere? Decimated indigenous populations
Why did Italy become the center of the Italian Renaissance? 1) Italy was the most commercially advanced, urbanized, and literate area of high and later medieval Europe. 2) The remains of ancient Rome were most visible in Italy. 3) Italy's wealth, literacy, and pride in its Roman past provided foundation
What were the economic effects of the Crusades? 1) Increased access to Middle Eastern products 2) Stimulated production of goods to trade in Middle Eastern markets 3) Encouraged the use of credit and banking
What important economic practices began during the Renaissance? 1) Church rule against usury and the banks’ practice of charging interest 2) Letters of credit served to expand the supply of money and expedite trade. 3) New accounting and bookkeeping practices (e.g., use of Arabic numerals) were introduced.
What were the cultural foundations of the Italian Renaissance? The collapse of the Byzantine Empire reignited interest in Greco-Roman culture.
Who served as active civic leaders in the Italian city-states? Wealthy merchants
Why were Florence, Venice, and Genoa powerful city-states? 1) Had access to trade routes connecting Europe with Middle Eastern markets 2) Served as trading centers for the distribution of goods to northern Europe 3) Were initially independent city-states governed as republics
What is The Prince? Who wrote it? An early modern treatise on government written by Machiavelli about how to acquire and maintain power by absolute rule.
What were the main teachings of The Prince? 1) Supports absolute power of the ruler 2) Maintains that the end justifies the means 3) Advises that one should not only do good if possible, but do evil when necessary
Who were patrons? Wealthy people who sponsored works that glorified city-states in Italy.
How did education change during the Renaissance? Became increasingly secular
How was Medieval art and literature the same and different from Renaissance art and literature? Medieval art and literature focused on the Church and salvation, while Renaissance art and literature focused on individuals and worldly matters, along with Christianity.
What culture(s) did the Italian Renaissance seek to revive? Rome and Greece (Greco-Roman)
Who were important Italian Renaissance artists? What did they create? 1) Leonardo da Vinci: Mona Lisa and The Last Supper 2) Michelangelo: Ceiling of the Sistine Chapel and David
What is Humanism? Who is considered its father? - Celebrated the individual - Stimulated the study of classical Greek and Roman literature and culture - Supported by wealthy patrons - Petrarch: Father of Humanism
What cause the spread of the Italian Renaissance to Northern Europe? Rise of trade, travel, and literacy
How were Northern Renaissance thinkers different from Italian Renaissance thinkers? Merged humanist ideas with Christianity
What invention helped to spread ideas during the Renaissance? Moveable type printing press and the production and sale of books (Gutenberg Bible)
Who were important Northern Renaissance writers? What did they write? 1) Erasmus: The Praise of Folly 2) Sir Thomas Moore: Utopia
How were Northern Renaissance artists different from Italian Renaissance artists? Increasingly portrayed secular subjects.
Created by: rafterj