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Chapter 11

TermDefinition
Acid deposition The accumulation of acids on Earth's surface
Acid precipitation Conversion of sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides to acids that return to Earth as rain, snow or fog
Active solar energy Solar radiation captured with photovoltaic cells that convert light energy to electrical energy
Air pollution Concentration of trace substances, such as carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, hydrocarbons, and solid particulates, at a greater level than occurs in average air
Animate power Power supplied by animals or by people
Biomass fuel Fuel derived from wood, plant material, or animal waste
Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) The amount of oxygen required by aquatic bacteria to decompose a given load of organic waste; a measure of water pollution
Break-of-bulk point A location where transfer is possible from one mode of transportation to another
Bulk-gaining industry An industry in which the final product weighs more or comprises a greater volume than the inputs
Bulk-reducing industry An industry in which the final product weighs less or comprises a lower volume than the inputs
Chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) A gas used as a solvent, a propellant in aerosols, a refrigerant, and in plastic foams and fire extinguishers
Consumptive water usage The use of water that evaporates rather than being returned to nature as a liquid
Cottage industry Manufacturing based in homes rather than in factories, most common prior to the Industrial Revolution
Fission The splitting of an atomic nucleus to release energy
Fordist production A form of massive production in which each worker is assigned one specific task to perform repeatedly
Fossil fuel An energy source formed from the residue of plants and animals buried millions of years ago
Fusion Creation of energy by joining the nuclei of two hydrogen atoms to form helium
Geothermal energy Energy from steam or hot water produced from hot or molten underground rocks
Greenhouse effect The anticipated increase in Earth's temperature caused by carbon dioxide trapping some of the radiation emitted by the surface
Just-in-time delivery Shipment of parts and materials to arrive at a factory moments before they are needed
Labor-intensive industry An industry for which labor costs comprise a high percentage of total expenses
Maquiladora A factory built by a U.S. company in Mexico near the U.S. border, to take advantage of the much lower labor costs in Mexico
New international division of labor Transfer of some types of jobs, especially those requiring low-paid, less-skilled workers, from more developed to less developed countries
Nonconsumptive water usage The use of water that is returned to nature as a liquid
Nonpoint source pollution Pollution that originates from a large, diffuse area
Nonrenewable energy A source of energy that has a finite supply capable of being exhausted
Outsourcing A decision by a corporation to turn over much of the responsibility for production to independent suppliers
Ozone A gas that absorbs ultraviolet solar radiation and is found in the stratosphere, a zone 15 to 50 kilometers above Earth's surface
Passive solar energy systems Solar energy systems that collect energy without the use of mechanical devices
Photochemical smog An atmospheric condition formed through a combination of weather conditions and pollution, especially from motor vehicle emissions
Point source pollution Pollution that enters a body of water from a specific source
Pollution Concentration of waste added to air, water, or land at a greater level than occurs in average air, water, or land
Post-fordist production Adoption by companies of flexible work rules, such as the allocation of workers to teams that perform a variety of tasks
Potential reserve The amount of a resource in deposits not yet identified but thought to exist
Proven reserve The amount of a resource remaining in discovered deposits
Recycling The separation, collection, processing, marketing, and reuse of unwanted material
Remanufacturing The rebuilding of a product to specifications of the original manufactured product using a combination of reused, repaired and new parts
Renewable energy A resource that has a theoretically unlimited supply and is not depleted when used by people
Right-to-work law A U.S. law that prevents a union and a company from negotiating a contract that requires workers to join the union as a condition of employment
Sanitary landfill A place to deposit solid waste, where a layer of earth is bulldozed over garbage each day to reduce emissions of gases and odors from the decaying trash, to minimize fires, and to discourage vermin
Site factors Location factors related to the costs of factors of production inside a plant, such as land, labor, and capital
Situation factors Location factors related to the transportation of materials into and from a factory
Vertical integration An approach typical of traditional mass production in which a company controls all phases of a highly complex production process
Created by: Yedani