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Fisher Global Era 1A

Global Era 1 A: Scientific and French Revolutions, Enlightenment

TermDefinition
Scientific Revolution Change from traditional beliefs to experiment and observation, knowledge based on reason and logic
Copernicus Developed heliocentric theory, contradicted Church teachings
Galileo Proved heliocentric theory using telescope, accused of heresy
Isaac Newton Scientist who developed calculus and theory of gravity
Effect of the Scientific Revolution Spread new ideas, challenged church authority, used reason to discover natural laws and improve society
Key ideas of Enlightenment Consent of the governed, democracy, natural rights
John Locke Natural rights
Montesquieu Three branches, checks and balances
Voltaire Freedom of speech, separation of church and state
Adam Smith Wrote "Wealth of Nations", father of capitalism
Thomas Hobbes Wrote "Leviathan", supported absolute government
Effect of Enlightenment Inspired political revolutions in US, France, and Latin America
Enlightened despots Rulers who supported ideals of Enlightenment (Catherine the Great of Russia, King Charles of Spain and others)
Nickname for Enlightenment era Age of Reason
Causes of French Revolution Limited rights for most people, social inequality (Three Estates), excessive government spending, success of US Revolution
Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen 1789 French document declaring that government power is based on consent of the governed
Limited monarchy Monarch shares power with an elected body and abides by a Constitution. aka Constitutional Monarchy
Jacobins Radical French revolutionary group who took control of assembly in 1792., declared France a republic
"Liberty, Fraternity, Equality" Slogan of the radical Jacobins during French Revolution
Robespierre Led Reign of Terror during French Revolution
Reign of Terror Period of violence during French Revolution that resulted in the guillotine execution of King Louis XVI and 40,000 supporters
French Directory 5-man group created to lead government during French Revolution; government was weak, economy bad
Power vacuum No clear leader in a government
Napoleon French general, seized power in a coup d'├ętat, made himself Emperor of France
Napoleonic Code New framework of laws in France, created 1804, all people are equal under the law
French Empire 1804-1812 Most of Europe conquered by Napoleon, replaced monarchs with his friends and family
Invasion of Russia Long cold winter and Scorched Earth policy led to defeat of Napoleon, French king restored to power
Scorched Earth policy Russians burned their villages and crops during French invasion to weaken Napoleon's forces
Created by: fisher_lisa