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Chapter 6- Muscles

Muscle Notes

QuestionAnswer
What is the ability of skeletal muscle to shorten with force? contractility
What is the capacity of skeletal muscle to respond to a stimulus? excitability
What is the ability to be stretched? extensibility
What is the ability to recoil to original length? elasticity
Each skeletal muscle is surrounded by a connective tissue sheath called the _______. epimysium
__________ is another connective tissue located outside the epimysium that surrounds and separates the muscle. fascia
-thin myofilaments -2 strands of pearls twisted together Actin Myofilaments
-thick myofiliments - bundles of mini golf clubs Myosin Myofilaments
Actin and myosin form highly ordered units called ________, which are joined end to end to form the myofibril. sarcomeres
What is the basic structural and functional unity of the muscle? sarcomere
Where is the actin in the diagram we drew? around the z line in the i band
What kind of charge does the outside of the cell membrane have? positive
What kind of charge does the inside have? negative
what are nerve cells that carry action potentials to skeletal muscle fibers? motor neurons
adenosine triphosphate ATP
what is tetany? where muscle remains contracted without relaxing
what is anaerobic respiration? without oxygen
what is aerobic respiration? with oxygen, more efficient
The ________ is the amount of oxygen needed in chemical reactions to convert lactic acid to glucose and to replenish the depleted stores of creatine phosphate stores in muscle cells. oxygen debt
muscle cells muscle fibers
isometric equal distance ex. stacking books on your hand
isotonic equal tension ex. throwing bowling balls
which type of muscle fibers contract and fatigue quickly? and what is an example of this? fast twitch fibers and the white meat of a chicken breast
which type of fiber contracts slower and is more resistant to fatigue? also give an example of this. slow twitch fibers and dark meat of a ducks breast
the ______ (head) is the most stationary end of the muscle. origin
muscles that work together to accomplish specific movements are called _________. synergists
how are some ways muscles named? location, size, oreintation of fibers, shape, origin, insertion, and function.
raises the eyebrows occipitofrontalis
closes eyelids and causes crows feet orbicularis oculi
puckers the lips orbicularis oris
mastication chewing
how many pairs of mastication muscles are there? 4
the sliding of actin myofilaments past myosin myofilaments during contraction is called the __________. sliding filament mechanism
the time between application of a stimulus to a motor neuron and the beginning of a contraction is called the _______. lag phase
what is the increase in umber of motor units being activated is called _________. recruitment
the process in which a muscle becomes shorter and tighter contraction
muscle cell that makes up the muscle muscle fibers
muscle connected to the skeletal system skeletal muscle
layer of areolar connective tissue that ensheaths each individual myocyte endomysium
only found in heart, pumps blood through body cardiac muscle
transparent tubular sheath which envelops the fibers of skeletal muscles sarcolemma
regulates calcium ion concentration sarcoplasmic reticulum
part of a nerve cell where impulses are conducted axon
decline in muscles ability to generate force muscle fatigue
What did the tennis ball experiment represent? muscle fatigue
What is muscle that stabilizes? fixators
Each presynaptic terminal contains synaptic vesicles that secrete a neurotransmitter called acetylcholine. true or false? true
The H and I bands shorten, but the A bands do change in length. true or false? false
A muscle fiber will not respond to stimulus until that stimulus reaches a level called ________, at which point the muscle fiber will contract maximally. threshold
A muscle fiber will not respond to stimulus until that stimulus reaches a level called threshold, at which point the muscle fiber will contract maximally. This phenomenon is called the _______________. all-or-none response
the time of contraction is the _________. contraction phase
Where is ATP produced? mitochondria
ATP is short lived and very unstable. t/f? true
ATP turns into ADP plus phosphate. t/f? true
It is necessary for muscle cells to constantly produce ATP. When at rest they can’t stockpile ATP but they can store another high-energy molecule, called ___________. creatine phosphate
what flattens the cheeks? "trumpter's muscle" buccinator
smiling muscle zygomaticus
sneering levator labii superioris
frowning depressor anguli oris
what changes the shape of the tongue? intrinsic tongue muscles
what moves the tongue? extrinsic tongue muscles
lateral neck muscle and prime mover...rotates and abducts the head sternocleidomastoid
muscles that move the thorax thoracic muscles
elevates the ribs during inspiration external intercostals
contract during forced expiration internal intercostals
tendious area of the abdominal wall linea alba
on each side of the linea alba rectus abdominis muscle
adducts and flexes the arm pectoralis major
medially rotates, adducts, powerfully extends the arm 'swimmer muscles" latissimus dorsi
major abductor of the upper limb deltoid
extends the forearm triceps brachii
flexes the forearm biceps brachii
flexes forearm brachialis
flexes and supinates the forearm brachioradialsis
flexes the wrist flexor carpi
Created by: hjcoope2