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SOL Review: Unit 7-9

Byzantine Empire, Islamic Civilization, Middle Ages

QuestionAnswer
What is the capital of the Eastern Roman Empire? Constantinople
Why did Constantine move the capital to Constantinople? Provided political, economic, and military advantages.
Why was the location of Constantinople ideal? 1) Protection of the eastern frontier 2) Distance from Germanic invasions in the western empire 3) Crossroads of trade 4) Easily fortified site on a peninsula bordered by natural harbors
What role did Constantinople play? 1) Seat of the Byzantine Empire until Ottoman conquest 2) Preserved classical Greco-Roman culture 3) Center of trade
Through his codification of Roman law, Justinian provided the basis for what other law code? Provided the basis for the law codes of Western Europe
What are the major contributions of Emperor Justinian? 1) Codification of Roman law 2) Reconquest of former Roman territories 3) Expansion of trade
Although Justinian reconquered territory, what left the Byzantine Empire weakened? 1) Cost of the wars 2) First appearance of the bubonic plague
What provided the inspiration for Byzantine art and architecture? Christian religion and imperial power
What art forms are associated with the Byzantine empire? Icons (religious images) and mosaics
What is the Hagia Sophia? A Byzantine domed church
How did the Byzantine culture preserve Greek and Roman traditions? 1) Continued flourishing of Greco-Roman traditions 2) Greek language (as contrasted with Latin in the West) 3) Greek Orthodox Christianity 4) Greek and Roman knowledge preserved in Byzantine libraries
What caused the division in the Christian Church? Cultural and political differences between the Eastern and Western Roman Empires
What are the characteristics of the Eastern Church? 1) Centered in Constantinople 2) Close to the seat of power after Constantinople became capital 3) Use of Greek language in the liturgy
What are the characteristics of the Western Church? 1) Centered in Rome 2) Farther from the seat of power after Constantinople became capital 3) Use of Latin language in the liturgy
What differences between the Western and Eastern Church led to its division? 1) Authority of the pope eventually accepted in the West 2) Authority of the patriarch accepted in the East 3) Practices of celibacy eventually accepted in the West
How did the Byzantine culture influence Eastern Europe and Russia? 1) Trade routes between Black and Baltic Seas 2) Adoption of Orthodox Christianity by Russia and much of Eastern Europe 3) Adoption of Greek alphabet for the Slavic languages by St. Cyril (Cyrillic alphabet) 4) Church architecture and religious art
What forms the basis for the Islamic religion? The revelations of Muhammad, the Prophet
What type of religion is Islam? Monotheistic
What locations are important to Islam? 1) Arabian Peninsula 2) Mecca 3) Medina
How did Islam spread? Muhammad and his followers spread Islam
Where did Islam spread? The geographic extent of the first Islamic empire (Asia, Africa, and into Spain)
What are the major beliefs, traditions, and practices of Islam? 1) Monotheism: Allah (Arabic for God) 2) Qur'an: The word of God 3) Five Pillars 4) Acceptance of earlier prophets such as Moses and Jesus
What are the important historical turning points associated with Islam? 1) Death of Ali: Sunni-Shi'a division 2) Muslim conquest of Jerusalem and Damascus 3) Islamic capital moved to Baghdad by Abbasids 4) Muslim defeat at the Battle of Tours
How did geography influence the origins and spread of Islam? 1) Diffusion along trade routes from Mecca and Medina 2) Expansion despite great distances, desert environments, and mountain barriers 3) Spread into the Fertile Crescent, Iran, Central Asia facilitated by weak Byzantine and Persian Empires
How did geography influence the economic, social, and political development of the Islamic civilization? 1) Political unity of the first Islamic empire was short-lived 2) Arabic language spread with Islam and facilitated trade across Islamic lands 3) Slavery was not based on race
What are the major cultural contributions and achievements of the Islamic civilization? 1) Architecture (Dome of the Rock) 2) Mosaics 3) Arabic alphabet 4) Universities 5) Translation of ancient texts into Arabic
What are the major scientific contributions and achievement of the Islamic civilization? 1) Arabic numerals (adapted from India, including zero) 2) Algebra 3) Medicine 4) Expansion of geographic knowledge
After the collapse of the Western Roman Empire, which kingdoms emerged as powerful forces in Western Europe? Germanic and Scandinavian
What are the foundations of early medieval society? 1) Classical heritage of Rome 2) Christian beliefs 3) Customs of Germanic tribes
Which Germanic civilization was located in Scandinavia? Vikings
Which Germanic civilization was located in England? Angles and Saxons
Which Germanic civilization was located in present-day France and Germany? Franks
What did Frankish kings use to expand their territory? military power
What alliance increased papal authority and influence in Western Europe? The alliance between Frankish kings and the Church
Where did the Franks emerge as a force? In Western Europe
Who crowned Charlemagne emperor? The Pope
During the Age of Charlemagne, which religious body's power was established in political life? The Church
Which language was revived as the language of scholars during the Age of Charlemagne? Classical Roman Latin
Which languages replaced Classical Roman Latin as the everyday language during the Age of Charlemagne? French, Italian, Spanish, or other languages
The new empire under Charlemagne included most of ________. Western Europe
What were built to unite the empire? Churches, roads, and schools
What disrupted the social, economic, and political order of Europe? Invasions by Angles, Saxons, Magyars, and Vikings
When did Angles and Saxons migrate to England? fifth century
When did Magyars migrate to central Europe? tenth century
Who led the tribes of the Angles, Saxons, Magyars, and Vikings? Tribal units were led by chieftans
How did the invasions of the Angles, Saxons, and Magyars affect the economy? Invasions disrupted trade and towns declined
What religion did the Angles, Saxons, and Magyars gradually convert to? Christianity
After converting to Christianity, the Angles, Saxons, and Magyars adopted what? literacy
When did Viking attacks mostly take place? in the 9th and 10th centuries
What caused the Vikings to explore and invade? lack of arable land
How did the invasions of the Vikings affect the economy? Invasions disrupted trade and towns declined
What type of religion was practiced by the Vikings? What religion did they gradually convert to? Polytheistic; Christianity
What contributed to the collapse of the Frankish Empire founded by Charlemagne? Viking attacks
Where did the Vikings settle? In the areas known today as Russia, Iceland, and Greenland, and briefly in North America
What was the Viking's economy based on? Eastern European sea and river trade
Why did people enter into feudal agreements with landholding lords? The decline of the Roman influence in Western Europe left people with little protection against invasion. Lords promised them protection.
When did Feudalism emerge? Gradually between the fall of the Western Roman Empire (5th cent.) and the collapse of the Carolingian Empire (10th cent.)
What is a fief? Land given to a vassal in exchange for loyalty and military service
Who is a vassal? Owner of a fief
Who is a serf? Peasant who worked on a fief in exchange for protection
Feudal society during the Middle Ages was based on what? Feudal obligations
What were the characteristics of the manorial system during the Middle Ages? Rigid class structure and self-sufficient manors
What were the characteristics of the centralized monarchy in England during the Late Middle Ages? 1) William the Conqueror, leader of the Norman Conquest, united most of England 2) King John signed the Magna Carta, limiting the king's power 3) The Hundred Years' War between England and France helped define England as a nation 4) Parliament evolved
What were the characteristics of the centralized monarchy in France during the Late Middle Ages? 1) The Capetian dynasty united most of France, and King Philip II made Paris the French capital 2) The Hundred Years' War between England and France helped define France as a nation 3) Joan of Arc was a unifying factor
What were the characteristics of the centralized monarchy in Spain during the Late Middle Ages? 1) Ferdinand and Isabella unified most of Spain and expelled the Jews and Moors. 2) Spanish Empire in the Western Hemisphere expanded under Charles V.
What were the characteristics of the centralized monarchy in Russia during the Late Middle Ages? 1) Ivan the Great threw off the rule of the Mongols, centralized power in Moscow, and expanded the Russian nation. 2) Power was centralized in the hands of the tsar. 3) The Orthodox Church influenced unification.
Why were the Crusades fought? The Crusades were carried out by Christian political and religious leaders to take control of the Holy Land from the Muslims.
Who conquered the Byzantine Empire? Ottoman Turks
What were the key events of the Crusades? 1) Pope Urban's speech 2) The capture of Jerusalem 3) Founding of Crusader states 4) Loss of Jerusalem to Saladin 5) Sack of Constantinople by western Crusaders
What were the effects of the Crusades? 1) Strengthened monarchs, who gained new powers of taxation 2) Caused disillusionment with pope and nobles, who began to launch and fight crusades against fellow Christians 3) Stimulated trade throughout the Mediterranean area and Middle East
What were the effects of the Crusades? (Cont.) 4) Left a legacy of bitterness among Christians, Jews, and Muslims 5) Weakened the Byzantine Empire
What happened to Constantinople in 1453? Fell to the Ottoman Turks, ending the Byzantine Empire; became the capital of the Ottoman Empire
In the 14th century, what decimated the population of much of Asia and Europe? Bubonic plague or Black Death
What was the impact of the Black Death? 1) Decline in population 2) Scarcity of labor 3) Attempts by lords to restrict wage increases and land acquisitions 4) Large-scale peasant revolts 5) Massacres of Jewish populations blamed for the BD 6) Disruption of trade
During the Middle Ages, education was largely confined to which group? Clergy
What role did church scholars play in the Middle Ages? 1) Could read and write 2) Worked in monasteries 3) Translated Greek and Arabic works into Latin
What role did church scholars play in the Middle Ages? (Cont.) 4) Made new knowledge in philosophy, medicine, and science available in Europe 5) Laid foundations for the rise of universities in Europe in the 13th cent.
Created by: rafterj