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Psych development

CH 8 Overthrow Development of Ballistic Skills (final)

QuestionAnswer
Ballistic skills are those in which a person applies force to an object in order to project it
most common type of throw one-hand overarm throw
type of throw that a person uses often depends on task constraints, particularly rules and the size of the ball
What is the problem with accurately assessing someone’s throwing proficiency? Accurately access how well someone can throw? Criteria is dynamic (i.e., changes with age, body size/strength, task, the relative age effect, etc.)
Characteristics of Early Overarm Throwing -Done by arm only Isnt any Back swing to generate force or trunk movement, no step forward, arm leg flexion of wrist
Proficient Overarm Throwing 1 Forward step pelvic rotation 2 Upper spine rotation and upper arm swing 3 Upper arm inward rotation and elbow extension 4 Release 5 Follow-through
Validated developmental sequences sequences of advances in the performance of a skill that have been determined by longitudinal study and shown to fall in the same fixed order for all individuals (Order is the same but pace can vary)
4 components Over arm throwing -Trunk -Backswing -Forearm -Feet
Developmental Changes in Trunk Step 1: no trunk action (early stage) Step 2: block rotation (becoming proficient age 4-5) Step 3: differentiated trunk rotation (professional)
Block rotation forward rotation of the lower and upper trunk as a unit
differentiated trunk rotation the lower trunk (hip section) rotates before the upper trunk (shoulder section), still preparing to rotate forward
Developmental Changes in Backswing Step 1: arm dont move backward before moving forward (no backswing) Step 2: arm moves backward so ball is behind head (some but limited) Step 3: circular upward backswing (straight line back) Step 4: circular downward backswing (professional throw)
Developmental Changes in Forearm Step 1: elbow higher or lower than shoulder as arm swings forward Step 2: elbow is at shoulder level Step 3: at time of front facing (trunk is facing forward), forearm lags behind --> this helps increase speed of throwing
Developmental Changes in Feet Step 1: no step forward Step 2: step forward with leg on same side as throwing arm Step 3: step forward with opposite leg, short step Step 4: step forward with opposite leg, long step
The development of throwing in different body parts does not develop at same time (e.g., trunk before forearm)
Boys generally go through throwing development stages faster than girls - why? Gender norms, desire, opportunities, instruction Practice vs nonpractice
Throwing Sex differences also exist in Adulthood older men generally have better form and velocity
Throwing in Adulthood (60+ years of age) 1 Feet: shorter contralateral step 2 Trunk: block rotation 3 Backswing: begins with circular downward motion but circle is not “completed” 4 Generally, older adult throwing patterns resemble individuals with moderate throwing skill (steps 2, 3)
Throwing for Accuracy Throwers used a slower velocity in the accuracy condition Most individuals adapted their movements in at least one body component
Created by: rmart11