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Chapter 20

TermDefinition
Old Order the political and social system in place in France before the Revolution
King Louis XVI King of France from 1774 to 1792; his unpopular policies helped trigger the French Revolution. Deposed by the National convention, he was executed by the guillotine
Marie Antoinette Queen of France, wife of King Louis XVI; she was queen during the French Revolution and disliked by many French citizens
First Estate in pre-Revolution France, the clergy
Second Estate in pre-Revolution, Frannce, the nobles
Third Estate in pre-Revolution France, the bourgeoisie, artisans, workers, and peasants
bourgeoisie the urban middle class; merchants, professionals, and manufactures
Sans-culottes "without breeches"; a radical group of shopkeepers and wage earners during the French Revolution who wanted a larger voice in government and an end to food storages.
Declaration of the Rights of Men and of the Citizen radical a document that laid out basic principles of the French Revolution- liberty, equality, and fraternity
Maximillen Robespierre Leading figure of the French Revolution; he was known for his intense dedication to the Revolution. He became increasingly radical and led the National Convention during its bloodthirsty time.
Guillotine a device used during the French Revolution for beheading people
Counterrevolution a revolution against a government establishment by a revolution
Reign of Terror a period during the French Revolution in which the Robespierre-led government executed thousands of political figures and ordinary citizens
Napoleon Bonaparte general; Emperor of France; he seized power in a coup d'état in 1799; he led French armies in conquering much of Europe
Admiral Horatio Nelson British admiral; he defeated Napoleons navy in Egypt and again at the Battle of Trafalgar
Coup d´état "stroke of state"; the sudden overthrow of a government by force
Plebiscite the procedure used to submit the constitution of a new government to people for a yes-or-no vote
Continental System the system of commercial blockades of Britain and continental Europe set in place by Napoleon with the intent on destroying the Britain's economy
Nationalism sense of pride and devotion to one's nation
Czar Alexander I Czar of Russia from 1801 to 1825; after the defeat of the Napoleon's army
Hundred Days period that marks the time between Napoleons return to Paris from Elba
Duke of Wellington British solider and statesman; he led the British troops against Napoleon at the Battle of Waterloo
Prince Klemens von Mettemich Austrian statesman and diplomat; he was the Austrian representative at the Congress of Vienna
Charles Maurice de Talleyrand French statesman and diplomat; he was one of the negotiators at the Congress of Vienna
Indemnity Compensation that is paid to a nation for the damage inflicted upon it in a war
Reactionary an extremist who not only opposes change but also wants to undo certain changes
Created by: jaqwann001