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India Section 2

Chapter 5 Section 2

What is the division of Indian society into groups based on rank, wealth, or occupation? caste system
What is the main religion of India which teaches that everything is part of a universal spirit called Brahman Hinduism
What is the belief that souls are born and reborn many times, each time into a new body? reincarnation
What are the effects that good or bad actions have on a person's soul? karma
What is the Indian religion based on the teachings of Mahavira that teachers all life is sacred? Jainism
What is the avoidance of violent actions? non-violence
What monotheistic religion developed in India in the 1400s AD? Sikhism
What is a set of spiritual duties that a person must fulfill in Indian religion? dharma
In Indian religion, what is the name for a person's soul? atman
Describe the 4 divisions of Indian society (Varnas). (1) Brahmins: priests, highest rank, performed rituals for the gods (2) Kshatriyas: rulers & warriors (3) Vaisyas: farmers, craftspeople, & traders (4) Sudras: laborers and non-Aryans
Describe the 4 Varnas as part of the body. Mouth: priests, teachers, & judges Arms: princes & warriors Legs: professionals & merchants Feet: servants, laborers, & non-Aryans
The 4 Varnas were divided into castes (or rankings) based on a person's birth, wealth, and occupation. Was this placement permanent? Were there exceptions? Castes determined a person's place in society. It was very rare for someone to change castes. At first women could own property and get an education, but later laws were passed to limit women's rights. Outcasts or Untouchables were people who did not belong to any caste. They could only hold jobs that were unpleasant or dirty, jobs no one else wanted.
Describe what the lives of Outcasts or Untouchables would be like. Untouchables/outcasts lived outside of all castes. They could only have the "dirty jobs" that no one else would do. They could not go to temples or schools. They had to sleep during the day and work at night so that the rest of society didn't have to see them because even looking at one of them would make them "dirty".
What are the Sutras? Guides for living, provide the rules for each caste system to keep each class different. You could not marry or even eat with people outside of your caste. People who broke the rules were banned from their homes and made outcasts.
Describe Brahmanism, the religion of the Aryans. Their religion came from the Vedas or "Books of Knowledge". They were made of sacred hymns, poems, which explained life and how you should live. Later texts included religious rituals, secret rituals, and reflections by students and teachers.
Describe the basics beginnings of Hinduism. Hinduism developed out of Brahmanism. 800 million followers and over 330 million gods (polytheistic).
Name 4 of the main gods of Hinduism. Devi: creator (birth) Shiva: destroyer (death) Vishnu: preserver (rebirth) Brahman: the SUPREME (main) god
Describe the Hindu belief in reincarnation. The world is only an illusion. The ultimate goal is to reunite their soul (atman) with Brahman. It takes many lifetimes to see through the illusion. Reincarnation is when the soul is born into a new body each time after death. You have to cycle through all forms of life, even animals. If you have good karma you are born to a higher life form/caste. If you have bad karma you are born to a lower life form/caste.
What is moksha? Moksha is like Hindu heaven. After you go through all the cycles of reincarnation and reach salvation you are reunited with Brahman instead of being reincarnated again.
How did Jainism develop out of Hinduism? Jainism is based on the teachings of Mahavira. He was raised Hindu but didn't like the rituals of Hinduism.
What are the 4 basic principles (idea) of Jainsim? (1) injure no life (2) tell the truth (3) do not steal (4) own no property
Explain why Jains are vegetarian. Jains practice non-violence. They believe everything is alive and are SERIOUS about not hurting or killing any creature.
How did Sikhism develop? Sikhism is based on the teachings of Guru Nanak. He blended the ideas of Hinduism with Islam.
Describe the basic beliefs of Sikhism. Sikhism is monotheistic. The ultimate goal is to reunite with god through mediation to find spiritual enlightenment. They believe in reincarnation and teach that people should live truthfully and treat all people equally.
What are the 5 items Sikhs must wear at all times? long hair, small comb, steel bracelet, sword, and special undergarment
What does the Rigveda include? The Rigveda includes hymns of praise to many gods.
What role did sacrifice play in Aryan society? Sacrifices were a very important part of Aryan religious ceremonies.
How do you think Guru Nanak's travels influenced the development of Sikhism? Guru Nanak's travels exposed him to new ideas that helped shape the teachings of Sikhism.