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A&P Ch6 Bone Tissue

Functions, structure, histology, blood to bone, formation, growth, homeostasis,

TermDefinition
List 7 basic functions of the skeletal system. Support, protect, assistance in movement, mineral homeostasis, blood cell production, and triglyceride storage.
The component of a long bone that stores energy is the: Marrow
The epiphyseal growth plates(s), seen only in a growing bone, consist of: Hyaline cartilage
This thin line is the remnant of the epiphyseal growth plate when a long bone ceases to grow in length: Epiphyseal line
What are the correct percentages of compact and spongy bone tissue in the skeleton? 80% compact bone and 20% spongy bone
How are osteons in compact bone tissue aligned? Along lines of stress
Which zone of cartilage anchors the growth plate to the epiphysis? Zone of resting cartilage
The renewal rate for compact bone tissue is: 4% per year
This type of fracture is considered a partial fracture and is usually seen in children. Greenstick
The stage of bone repair that follows the formation of the fracture hematoma is: Formation of a fibrocartilaginous callus
What is the effect of parathyroid hormone (PTH) on bone? Stimulates osteoclasts to dissolve bone, releasing calcium
What are the two principal effects of aging on bone? Demineralization and brittleness
What is the role of red bone marrow? To produce red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets
The region of a long bone that is covered with articular cartilage where the bone articulates with another bone at a synovial joint is the: Epiphysis
The anatomical name for the shaft of a long bone is: Diaphysis
The thin layer of tissue covering the ends of bones in a synovial joint to reduce friction between them is the: Articular cartilage
The layer of hyaline cartilage that allows a long bone to grow in length is called the: Epiphyseal plate
This is the region in mature bone between the diaphysis and the epiphysis: Metaphysis
This is a lining found on bone that promotes bone growth in width: Periosteum
The dense, irregular connective tissue that covers bone, except at its articular surface, is called: Periosteum
Which is the correct order of maturation, from unspecialized to specialized? Osteogenic, osteoblast, osteocyte
The bone-building cells? Osteoblasts
The mature bone cells that maintain the health of bones? Osteocytes
The bone-dissolving cells? Osteoclasts
Which bone cells originate from the fusion of white blood cells called monocytes? Osteoclasts
Where are osteons found? Compact bone
Which of the following structures in compact bone contains osteocytes? Lacunae
These are extensions of the lacunae in compact bone, and are filled with extracellular fluid. Canaliculi
Where is spongy bone mostly found in a long bone? In the epiphysis
The mechanism by which a long bone grows in width is called: Appositional growth
Where does appositional bone growth occur? Within the periosteum
Bone remodeling involves: Bone resorption by osteoclasts and bone deposition by osteoblasts
Besides calcium, which of the following minerals is needed when bones are growing? Phosphorus
During childhood, which of the following hormones is most important to bone growth? Growth hormone
During development, which of the following cause a dramatic effect on bone growth? Sex hormones
About 25% of all stress fractures involve which bone? Tibia
Space within the shaft of the bone that contains yellow bone marrow Articular cartilage
Triglyceride storage tissue Yellow bone marrow
Hemopoietic tissue Red bone marrow
Membrane lining the medullary cavity in a bone Endosteum
Bundles of collagen fibres that attach periosteum to bone Perforating (sharpey's) fibres
This decreases blood calcium levels by accelerating calcium deposition in bones and inhibiting osteoclast Calcitonin (CT)
This is required for collagen synthesis Vitamin c
Required for protein synthesis in Bones Vitamin k
Active form of vitamin D;raises blood calcium levels by increasing absorption of calcium from digestive tract Calcitriol
This raises blood calcium levels by increasing bone reabsorption Parathyroid hormone (PTH)
Column like layer of mature chondrocytes is which cartilage zone Zone of hypertrophic cartilage
Layer of small, scattered chondrocytes incurring the epiphyseal plate of the bone. Which cartilage zone is this? Zone of resting cartilage
Leader of actively dividing chondrocytes. Which cartilage zone is this? Zone of peroliferating cartilage
Region of dead chondrocytes. Which cartilage zone is this? Zone of calcified cartilage
A broken bone in which one end of the fractured bone is driven into the other end Impacted fracture
Splintered bone with smaller fragments line between main fragments Comminuted fracture
An infection of the bone Osteomyelitis
A condition characterized by failure of new bone formed by remodeling to calcify in adults Osteomalacia
Small space between lamellae that contains osteocytes
Lacunae
Perforating canals that penetrate compact bone; carry blood vessels, lymphatic vessels, and nerves from the periosteum Volkmann's canals
Areas between osteons; fragments of old osteons Interstitial lamellae
Microscopic unit of compact bone tissue Osteon (haversian system)
Canal's that extend longitudinally through the bone and connect blood vessels and nerves to the osteocytes Haversian (Central canals)
Irregular lattice of thin columns of bone found in spongy bone tissue Trabeculae
Rings of hard calcified matrix founded just beneath the periosteum and in the medullary cavity Circumferential lamellae
Unspecialized stem cells derived from mesenchyme Osteogenic cells
Bone growth in length is called Interstitial growth
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