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Early China

2000 BC.-AD.45

Advantages of the Huan He Creates fertile soil for farming and irrigates the crops
Disadvantage of the Huan He Terrible floods
What does Huan He mean? Yellow River
What is loess? A rich yellow soil deposited by the Huan He
What is the Chang Jiang or Yangtze River? A long river that serves as a major waterway for trade and transportation
Why is only one tenth of the land of China cultivated? Because much of the land consists of deserts and mountains
Name three large mountain chains in China? The Himalayas, Kunlun Shan and Tian Shan
What is a famous desert in northern China? The Gobi desert
What is the name of the first dynasty in China? The Shang dinasty
How long did the Shang dynasty rule? From 1750 BC. to 1045 BC. For more than 700 hundred years.
What is Anyang ? One of the first cities built by the Shang and the capital of the Shang dinasty
What are the ancestors ? Long-dead family members that are honored by the family
How did the Shang protect their borders? Through warlords that kept their own large armies to defend those borders
What are aristocrats? People of noble birth such as warlords and other officials whose wealth came from the land they owned. This group made the upper class.
What made up the majority of the population in the Shang dynasty? Farmers that lived in rural villages or worked for the aristocrats' land
How did farmers make their living? They raised sheep, cattle, and chickens and grew millet, wheat and rice
Name the four social classes in China ? Aristocrats, artisans, farmers (9/10), and merchants (lowest class).
What lands did the Shang dynasty occupy? At the beginning northern China but eventually they ruled all of the people of the Huang He valley
At this time, was religion in China polytheistic or monotheistic? Polytheistic since they believed in many gods that dwell in the rivers, sea and mountains.
What is another name for the Huang He and why? "China's sorrow". It has caused a great number of floods and loss of life along China's history.
Why did China develop a unique form of culture ? The country was isolated by mountains and deserts from other countries and their villages were spread wide apart within itself
How do the Chinese call their land and how did they see themselves compared to the rest of the world? The Chinese refer to their land as "the Middle Kingdom" and to them it was the center of the world
What does the term " filial piety" refer to ? This term refers to the idea that children are to support and respect their parents
Who are the ancestors? The ancestors are the past generations of a family and people honored them because they thought they helped them
Explain the concept of "mandate of heaven". Zhou rulers claimed that the gods chose wise men to be kings. The king was responsible and accountable for pleasing the gods The king had to follow the "Dao", or the "Way" to lead the people well.
What would happen if there was a natural disaster or a bad harvest in the kingdom? The king was to be blamed for the displeasing the gods, and could be replaced
What are the three main philosophies of this time? Confucianism, daoism, and legalism
What are the basic teachings of Confucianism? Founded by Confucius. Duty to the family and community should come before one's own needs; jobs should be filled based on ability. The Analects collect the teachings of Confucius by his students.
What are the basic teachings of Daoism? Founded by Laozi. Ideas that nature and the Dao, or "Way", are more important than worldly possessions. Daoism teaches the way to a good life base on simplicity and dependence on nature and the Dao.
What are the basic teachings of Legalism? Founded by Han Fei Zi.- His ideas were that all humans are naturally evil so they need an strict system of laws and harsh punishments.
Which of these three philosophies was preferred by aristocrats and why? Aristocrats favored legalism because it seemed to give them the power to issue harsh punishments and not help other people.
Who were the Shang? The Shang was the first dynasty to built cities in China. The capital of the Shang empire was Anyang in the banks of the Huan He
How did the Shang king rule? The Shang kings were the most powerful people in Shang China. They were political, military, and religious leaders.
What were the main achievements of the Shang dynasty? They conquered land and established China's first dynasty. Artisans, or skilled workers crafted objects made of bronze, silk, ivory and jade. The Shang developed writing in the form of pictographs and ideographs.
How are modern languages different from languages that use pictographs and ideographs? Modern languages are based on alphabet based on sounds. Pictographs represent objects and ideographs represent are combined pictographs that represent ideas.
How did the Zhou dynasty come into power? The last Zhang ruler was very cruel and was finally overthrown by the Zhou dynasty in 1045 BC when they established it. It is the longest ruling dynasty in China ( for more than 800 yrs.).
How did the Zhou kings ruled? The conquered land of the empire was divided into territories given to the aristocrats to rule as bureaucrats. Bureaucratic positions were hereditary (inherited).
What was China's "Period of the Warring States"? It was a period of time that began in the 400s B. C.of more than 200 years were Zhou aristocrats became more powerful and took control of their territories. Then they fought against each other for power. Each aristocrat formed their own state.
What were the achievements of the Zhou dynasty? Zhou rulers developed new systems of irrigation which led to plentiful crops. Wars between the states advanced military technology such as saddles and stirrups for horses.
What do we know about the Qin dynasty? It was created in 221 BC by the leader of the Qin territory who took the name himself of Qin Shihuangdi, or " First Qin Emperor". it lasted only until 206 BC.
How did the Qin dynasty rule? The emperor had absolute power. He followed legalism ( strict laws and harsh punishments. He completed and strengthened walls other rulers had built for protection in the north and extending west, called the Great Wall. Built a massive tomb for himself.
What is the terracotta army? The Qin emperor built for himself a great tomb and filled it with an army of life-sized terracotta warriors.
What were the Qin change China? Censors improved government efficiency. Currency improved trade, economy and helped unify the empire. Reform of the Chinese system of writing- rules were simplified and clarified. The great canal was built connecting central and southern China.
How did the Qin rulers expand trade? Qin rulers sent traders to explore far into the west where they found horses and allies
When did the Han dynasty come into power? The Han dynasty took power in 202 BC and ruled for over 400 yrs.
How did the Han dynasty change the empire? A strong ruler named Han Wudi instituted the civil service exams to fill government positions. The Han dynasty enjoyed peace for 150 years. As a result of the longevity of the dynasty literature, arts and science prospered (grew).
What were great achievements of the Han dynasty ? Many inventions and medical advances took place during this dynasty.
What was the Silk Road? It was a major trade route to the West. It was a network of trade routes from western China to the Mediterranean Sea. Merchants traded silk, spices, other luxury items as well as fruits, vegetables, grains, and flowers.
Why is the Silk Road important? It spread Chinese inventions and goods to other regions. It put China in contact with other civilizations to learn more from them. It helped spread Buddhism to China.
How did Buddhism influence China through the Silk Road? It spread along the Silk Road from India to China. It influenced the system of beliefs of the Chinese by promising that religious devotion could end suffering and lead to eternal happiness. It influenced the followers of Confucius and Daoists.
What is the main system of beliefs of Buddhism and how did it influence China? Buddhism is based in the Four Noble Truths and the Eightfold Path. Buddhism will become one of China's major religions.
How did the Mandate of Heaven influenced the Zhou rulers? The Mandate of Heaven is the belief that the gods approved of the king who ruled China. It stated that the gods chose a wise person to rule who would lead them well. Nevertheless the king had to choose the proper Way or Dao to please the gods.
How did the people of the Zhou dynasty judge the actions of the ruler based on the Mandate of Heaven? The people could judge whether the actions of the king followed the Way or did a good job. If these actions were followed by a natural disaster or bad harvests they then believed that he had failed to please the gods and could be replaced.
What were the roles of Chinese men and women in society? Men were responsible for supporting the family, gaining knowledge(studying),running the government, and serving as soldiers. Women were to raise the children and manage the family's home and finances. Men were more respected for their work than women.
What were the Chinese families like? Chinese society revolved around the family. China's economy was based on farming which led to bigger families. Families were very tightly knit to care for the old, the young and the sick
How does filial piety relate to Confucianism? Filial piety places the needs of the head of family, the oldest male, before their own. This concept is central to Confucianism and remains an important component of Chinese culture today.
What were inventions of the Han dynasty? Iron plow, iron tools and techniques to drain swamps and irrigate fields, waterwheels to grind more grain, iron drills to mine more salt, wheelbarrows to carry heavy materials, silk manufacturing, paper to keep records, rudders to sail against the wind.
Name medical advances of the Han dynasty? Acupuncture- Treating the body using needles in certain centers to increase energy. The use of herbs to treat illnesses and prevent disease.
Created by: cmhumara