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Chapter 3

Internal Root Words

TermDefinition
Acanth/Acantho Spinous/with spikes
Acanthocyte red blood cell with a spinous cell membrane
Aer/aero Gas
Aerosinusitis Inflamed nasal sinuses, commonly experienced by deep sea divers and high altitude flyers. Casued by differential pressure between the internal sinus cavity and the atmosphere
Alge/ Algo/ Algio Pain
Analgesics A group of pharmaceutical drugs used to obtain relief from pain
Andro Masculine
Androblastoma Tumor in the testicles
Bronch/ Bronchi/ broncho The bronchus (Part of the respiratory system that directs airs into the lungs)
Bronchoconstrictor A drug that causes the airways in the lungs to constrict and narrow; can potentially trigger an asthma attack
bronchiol/ bronchio Bronchioles (smaller airways which branch off the bronchi)
bronchiolitis Severe viral infection affection the lungs with inflammation of the bronchioles. Occurs more commonly in infants and younger kids. Common causative agent is the respiratory syncytial virus.
Carcin/carcino Cancer
Carcinogen Cancer causing agent
Cardi/ cardio The heart
Cardiomyopathy Any clinical condition that affects the heart muscles ability to contract causing reduced cardio output
Cellul/ cellulo Cell
Cellulitis Infection in the skin and the underlying tissues caused by bacteria, often streptococci.
Cerebell/ Cerebello Cerebellum
Cerebellar Ataxia Irregular, spasmodic, & involuntary movements brought about by diseases or injury of the cerebellum
Cerebr/ cerberi/ cerbero Cerebrum
Cerebrovascular disease
Chol/ chole Bile
Cholangiography A diagnostic procedure where a contrast medium is used to render the bile ducts visible through an X-ray. Used to detect biliary stones or tumors
Cholecyst/ cholecysto The gallbladder
Cholecystectomy The removal of the gallbladder
Chrom/ Chromo Color
Chromatogenous producing color
Col/Colo Colon
Colestomy removal of part of the colon
Colp/Colpo the vagina
Colposcopy Procedure where the cervix and vagina are visually inspected through magnifying glass (colposcope)
Cost/ Costo Rib
Costalgia Pain in the chest area caused by injury to one of the ribs
Cry/Cryo Cold
Cryosurgery Therapeutic procedure involving extremely low temperatures utilized for destroying tissues. May also be used to promote adhesion between a tool and a tissue
Crypt/ Crypto Hidden
Cryptorchidism Developmental disorder in newborn boys, characterized by failure of the testes to drop into the scrotum
Cutane/ Cutaneo Skin
Subcutaneous The area underneath the skin
Cyan/ Cyano Blue
Cyanosis A skin discoloration where extremities of the face turn blue, as a result of excessive amounts of deoxygenated hemoglobin in blood
Cysti/ Cyst/ Cysto Cyst
Cysticercosis Severe albeit rare condition, where there is an infestation of parasitic cysts within the muscles and even in the brain
Cyt/ Cyto Cell
Cytology The study of individual cells
Dipl/Diplo Double
Diplopia Clinical term for double vision
Duoden/ duodeno Duodenum
Duodenitis Inflamed duodenum
Encephal/ Encephalo Brain
Electroencephalogram Diagnostic procedure done to check for abnormalities in the brains electrical activity. Done by tracking and recording brain waves
Intestine
Gastroenteritis Infection of the stomach and the intestines, usually due to a virus or bacteria
Episi/Episio The vulva
Episiorrhaphy Surgical repair of a laceration of the vulva
Eryth/ Erythro Red
Erythrocytes Red Blood Cells
Esophag/ esophago Esophagus
Esophagitis Inflammation of the esophageal lining
Fibr/ Fibro Fibers
Fibrosis Scar tissue overgrowth
Galact/ galacto Milk
Galactorrhea Excessive production of milk or milk-like discharge from the nipples. Can happen to non-pregnant women
Gastr/ gastro Stomach
Gastrostomy Surgical procedure where an opening is created in the stomach, so a feeding tube may be attached
Glyc/ Glyco Sugar
Glycopenia Sugar deficiency
Gynec/Gyneco Female
Gynecology Medical practice specializing in the female body
Hemat/ Hemato Blood
Hematoma Blood clot
Hepat/ hepato/ Hepatic The liver
Hepatomegaly Enlargement of the liver
Heter/ hetero Dissimilar
Heterochromia Congenital condition where there is a difference in the color of the skin, the hair, and the iris (ex: one eye is brown & the other is blue)
Hidr/Hidro Sweat
Hyperhydrosis Excessive sweating
Hist/ histo/ Histio Tissue
Histology The study of tissues
Hom/ Homo/ Home/ Homeo Similar
Homeoplasia The development of new, similar tissue
Hydr/ Hydro Water
Hydrocele Condition where the space around the testes is filled with fluid. causes tender swelling in the scrotum
Hyster/ hystero The uterus
Hysterectomy Removal of the uterus
Latr/ Latro Treatment
Latrogenic Suggests a link to treatment
Jejun/ Jejuno jejunum (middle part of small intestine)
jejunostomy Surgical procedure where an opening is cut in the wall of the jejudenum, so a plastic tube may be inserted.
Kerat/Kerato The eyes cornea
Keratomalacia A disease of the eyes brought about by lack of vitamin A. Cornea becomes cloudy ,ulcerated, and eventually perforated
Laryng/ Laryngyo The larynx
Laryngitis Inflamed larynx
Leuk/ Leuko White
Leukemia A cancer that affects the production and function of blood cells
Lip/ lipo/ lipid/ lipido Fat
Liposarcoma Unusual type of connective tissue cancer, where abnormal cells look like fat cells. Swelling is experienced in thighs and abdomen
Lith/ Litho Stone
Lithotomy Surgical removal of stones from areas of the urinary tract
Lymph/ Lympho The lymph vessels
Lymphangiography A diagnostic test conducted through the injection of a contrast agent into the lymph vessels to make abnormalities visible through X-ray
Melan/ Melano Black
Melanocytes Cells that form melanin
Men/ Meno Menstruation
Menorrhea Abnormally disproportionate menstrual bleeding
Mening/ meningo Meninges
Meningitis Inflamed and infected meninges caused by a virus or bacteria. fatal condition is accompanied by severe headaches, photosensitivity, and stiffening of the muscles
Metr/ Metra/ Metro Uterus
Metrorrhagia Irregular bleeding from the uterus that is experienced between the woman's monthly periods.
My/ Myo Muscle
Myalgia Muscular pain
Myel/ Myelo The spine or the bone marrow
Myelosclerosis Proliferation of fibrous tissue in the bone marrow. Impairs the bone marrow's competence in producing blood cells
Myring/ Myringo The eardrum
Myringoplasty Corrective procedure where a hole in the eardrum is closed with tissue grafting
Nat/Nato Birth
Neonate A newborn baby, less than 4 months old
Necr/ Necro Death
Necrosis The death of tissue cells due to insufficient blood supply or an infection
Nephr/ Nephro The kidneys
Nephrocalcinosis The presence of calcium deposits in one or both kidneys
Oophor/ Oophoro The ovaries
Oophorectomy Surgical removal of the ovaries; Last resort treatment for ovarian cancer and cysts
Orchi/ orchid/ orchido/ orchio The testes
Orchitis Inflammation of the testes, accompanied by high temperature, severe pain & swelling. Commonly sue to mumps when occurring after puberty
Oss/ Osseo/ Ossi/ Ost/ Osteo The bones
Osteomyelitis Bone and bone marrow infection, usually bacterial
Palat/ Palato The palate
Palatoplasty Reconstruction of a cleft palate
Patth/ Patho Disease
Pathogen Causative agent of a disease, usually a microorganism
Periton/ Peritone The peritoneum
Peritonitis Inflamed peritoneum, usually from entry of bacteria and digestive fluids into the abdominal cavity, through a punctured stomach or intestinal wall
Pharmac/ pharmaco Drugs
Pharmacodynamics Pertains to the way the body reacts to, synthesizes, and benefits from a pharmaceutical substance
Pharyng/ pharyngo The pharynx
Pharyngitis Inflamed pharynx due to virus or bacteria. Can also be caused by irritants
Phleb/Phlebo Vein
Phlebitits Inflammation of a vein; usually occurs after injection of an irritant drug into the vein
Phren/ phreno Diaphragm
Phrenic nerve A nerve which supplies the diaphragm; essentially for breathing
Pleur/ Pleuro The pleura
Pleurisy Inflamed pleura due to infections of the lung, pulmonary embolism, or cancer of the lung
Pneum/ pneuma/ peumo/ pneumato The lungs
Pneumothorax Potentially fatal condition where air leaks into the pleural cavity; will eventually lead to lung collapse due to pleural compression on the lungs
Poli/ polio Gray
Poliomyelitis Infectious condition caused by a viral pathogen. The severe type affects the brain (especially the gray matter) and the spinal cord; if this happens the disease becomes fatal
Proct/ Procto The anus or the rectum
Proctitis Inflammation of the rectum, accompanied by pain, bleeding, and pus
Pulmon/ pulmono The lungs
Pulmonary hypertension Abnormally elevated blood pressure in the arteries
Pyel/ pyelo The pelvis/ the kidneys
Pyelonephritis Inflamed kidneys often due to a bacterial causative agent
Rect/ Recto The rectum
Rectocele Tissues of the vaginal wall are weakened and the back wall of the vagina bulges inward and downward bc the rectum is pushing against it
Sacr/ Sacro The sacrum
Sacralgia Scrotum pain; usually associated with disc prolapse due to pressure created on the spinal nerve
Salping/ Salpingo The fallopian tube
Salpingitis Inflammation of the fallopian tubes; may be due to P.I.D, but more commonly due to STI's
Sarc/ Sarco Flesh
Sarcoidosis A sporadic inflammatory disease of unknown origin which affects tissues around the body, most frequently the skin, liver, and lymph nodes
Sept/ Septo Contamination
Septicemia A deadly condition where there is fast spread of bacteria that release toxins into bloodstream
Splen/ Pleno The spleen
Spondyl/ spondylo The vertebra
Spondylosis A spinal disorder where the arch of the 5th lumbar vertebra is not made up of normal bone as it should be. Instead it's composed of soft, fibrous tissue which is weak and susceptible to damage
Ten/ tend/ tendo/ teno Tendon
Tendinitis Inflammation of the tendon, usually due to excessive use or an injury
Testicul/testiculo testis
Testicular Feminization Syndrome Infants born as girls with vaginal pouches sans uterus. A testes is present in the abdomen; however, the body tissues are unable to respond to testosterone. More commonly referred to as, Complete Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome.
Therm/ thermo Heat
Thermography A method where the temperature patterns of the skins surface are documented as images
Thry/ Thyro The thyroid gland
Hypothyroidism A condition where the thyroid hormone production in the body is less than normal
Tonsill/ tonsillo The tonsils
Tonsillectomy A surgical operation conducted for removal of the tonsils
Trache/ tracheo The trachea
Tracheostomy Creating an opening in the windpipe when upper airway is obstructed
Tympan/ Tympano The eardrum
Tympanostomy Tube A tube introduced into the eardrum to avoid fluid buildup in the middle ear
Ur/ Ure/ Urea/ ureo/ Urin/ Urino/ Uro Urine
Urinalysis A diagnostic test conducted to measure the urines physical characteristics, such as color and the concentration
Urethr/ urethero Urethra
Urethrocele A female deformity where the tissues in the vagina's front wall are weakened, thus allowing the urethra to bulge back and down into the vagina
Vesic/ vesico The bladder
Vesicouretheral reflux The retrograde flow of urine from the bladder back to the kidneys
Viscer/ viscero Internal organs (the viscera)
Visceroptosis The prolapse/ downward displacement of the internal organs within the abdomen
Xanth/ Xantho Yellow
Xanthochromia Yellowish discoloration; indicative of the presence of bilirubin in the cerebrospinal fluid
Xer/ Xero Dry
Xerophthiamia Dryness of the eyes, caused by a lack of Vitamin A
Created by: muszii33