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Med Term Mod_14

Terms & Meanings

QuestionAnswer
Candida yeast-like fungus normally present in the mouth, skin, vagina & intestinal tract
Thrush Candida infection of the mouth
Cryptoccocus yeast-like fungus; pathogen found in pigeon droppings, nesting places, air, water & soil
retinitis inflammation of retina at back of the eye
Cryptosporidium parasitic, one-celled organism commonly found in farm animals
Histoplasma capsulatum fungus; pathogen found in bird & bat droppings
pneumoccocus jirovecii one-celled organism responsible for PCP; pathogen found in air, water, and soil; carried by animals
Bactrim trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole
Toxoplasma pathogen causing toxoplasmosis
Myobacterium tuberculosis bacteria causing Tuberculosis (TB)
granulocyte colony-stimulating factor a cytokine that promotes neutophil production
granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor cytokine secreted by macrophages that poromotes growth of myeloid progenitor cells & differentiation to granulocytes
highly active antiretroviral therapy use of combinations of drugs that are effective against AIDS
natural killer cell lymphocyte that recognizes & destroys foreign cells by releasing cytotoxins
acquired immunity formation of antibodies & lymphocytes after exposure to an antigen
AIDS depression/supression of immune system after exposure to HIV
adenoids masses of lymphatic tissue in nasopharnyx
allergen substance capable of causing a specfic hypersensitivity in the body; an antigen
antibody protein produced in bloodstream by lymphocytes in response to a specific antigen
antibodies destroy or weaken antigens
autoimmune disease chronic disabling disease cause by abnormal production of antibodies to normal body tissues
axillary node lymph node under the arm
B cell lymphocyte originating in bone marrow & transforms into a plasma cell to secrete antibodies
CD4+ lymphocytes helper T cells that carry CD4+ protein antigen on their surface
cell-mediated immunity type of immune response involving T cell lymphocytes, which act directly on antigens to destroy them
cervical node lymph node in neck
cytokine protein that aids cells to destroy antigens
interleukins & interferons are cytokines
cytotoxic cell T cell lymphocyte that directly kills foreign cells
T8 cell is a cytotoxic cell
denritic cell type of macrophage that captures antigens & presents them to T cells for destruction
helper T cell lymphocyte that aids B cell lymphocyte in recognizing antigens & stimulating antibody production
humoral immunity immune response in which a B cell lymphocyte transforms into a plasma cell & secretes antibodies
hypersensistivity abnormal condition characterized by an exaggerated response of immune system to an antigen
hypersplenism syndrome of spleen enlargement & destruction of red blood cells
immune response body's capability to resist foreign organisms & toxins that can damage tissue & organs
immunoglobulins react with antigens, transforming them into harmless substances or break them down to be disposed of by phagocytes
immunosuppression blocking/turning off normal immune response
immunotherapy use of immunologic techniques to treat disease
inguinal node lymph node in groin region
interferons anti-viral proteins secreted by lymphocytes
interleukins proteins that stimulate immune system including B & T cell lymphocytes
interstitial fluid fluid that fills spaces between cells
lymph fluid that circulates within lymph vessels & lymph nodes
lymph capillaries tiny lymph vessels that carry lymph through body
lymph node small, stationary, bean-shaped structures that occur in clusters along the path of lymph vessels
lymph vessels carry lymph throughout body
lymphadenitis inflammation of lymph nodes
lymphadenopathy disease of lymph nodes
lymphedema abnormal collection of fluid in tissue spaces caused by obstruction of lymph vessels & backflow of lymph
lymphocytes white blood cells that develop promarily in lymph nodes & spleen; fight against foreign organisms
lymphocytopenia deficiency of lymphocytes
lymphocytosis increased numbers of lymphocytes in bloodstream
lymphoid organs organs containing & derived from lymphatic tissue
spleen, thymus gland & lymph nodes are all lymphoid organs
lymphopoiesis formation of lymphocytes
macrophage large phagocyte found in lymphatic & connective tissues; derived from monocyte
mediastinal node lymph node in mediastinum
monoclonal antibody antibody produced in lab to attack specific antigens
plasma cell B cell lymphocyte that secretes antibodies
retrovirus virus that makes copies of itself using host cell's DNA; reverse of normal replication mechanism in cells
HIV is a retrovirus
right lymphatic duct received lymph from right side of body & empties lymph into a vein in neck
spleen organ in the LUQ, that produces, stores & eliminates blood cells
splenectomy removal of spleen
splenomegaly enlargement of spleen
supressor T cell lymphocyte that inhibits activity of B & T cell lymphocytes
T cell lymphocyte orginating in thymus gland & destroys antigens by direct action or production of cytokines
thoracic duct large lymphatic vessel in upper chest
thymectomy removal of thymus gland
thymus gland lymphoid organ that produces T cell lymphocytes & aids in immune response
tonsils masses of lymphatic tissue on either side of back of mouth
toxic pertaining to a toxin
toxins poison or harmful substance
vaccination introduction of vaccine to produce immunity
type of an acquired immunuty vaccination
vaccine weakened/dead antigen is administered to induce production of antibodies resulting in immunity
lymphatic system complex network of vessels, ducts, nodes, and organs; transports proteins and excess tissue fluid that leak from the capillaries back to the venous blood
lymphatic vessels absorb and transport fat from the small intestine to the general circulation
lymph is a clear, watery liquid that is derived from the fluid surrounding the body's cells flowing through lymphatic vasculature
liquid portion of lymph contains water, salts, sugar, proteins, lipids (fats), and metabolic wastes
Lymph also contains a variety of white blood cells, or leukocytes, and is particularly rich in lymphocytes and monocytes
lymphatic vessels begin in the intercellular spaces of the soft tissues of the body
in the intercellular spaces of the soft tissues of the body fluid that has filtered out of blood capillaries flows into single-layered vessels, or lymph capillaries
Networks of ___ are widely distributed throughout the body. lymph capillaries
lymphatic system complex network of vessels, ducts, nodes, and organs; transports proteins and excess tissue fluid that leak from the capillaries back to the venous blood
lymphatic vessels absorb and transport fat from the small intestine to the general circulation
lymph is a clear, watery liquid that is derived from the fluid surrounding the body's cells flowing through lymphatic vasculature
liquid portion of lymph contains water, salts, sugar, proteins, lipids (fats), and metabolic wastes
Lymph also contains a variety of white blood cells, or leukocytes, and is particularly rich in lymphocytes and monocytes
lymphatic vessels begin in the intercellular spaces of the soft tissues of the body
in the intercellular spaces of the soft tissues of the body fluid that has filtered out of blood capillaries flows into single-layered vessels, or lymph capillaries
Networks of ___ are widely distributed throughout the body. lymph capillaries
lymph is similar to blood plasma
lymph is formed from blood plasma during capillary exchnage
lymph eventually returns to the blood as part of the venous flow
lymph does not rely on the ___ to pump it throughout the system heart
lymph flows much ____ than blood slower
lymph moves through vessels according to the pressure gradient, skeletal muscle action, & repiratory movements
lymph also moves through vessels based on contraction of ___ & valves in vessel walls smooth muscle
lymphatic vessels are similar to veins
lymphatic vessels differ from veins because they are thinner & have more valves inside of them
smaller lymphatic vessels merge into larger ones until they merge into the right & thoracic lymphatic ducts
the right & thoracic lymphatic ducts empty into the right & left subclavian veins
when lymph reaches the right & left subclavian veins it will then be added to the blood flowing to the heart
lymph capillaries merge to form larger tubules called lymph vessels
lymph vessels are greater in diameter & have thicker walls than lymph capillaries
lymph from the RUQ drains into the right lymphatic duct
lymph from all areas in the body, with exception to RUQ, empty into the thoracic duct
the lymph from the thoracic duct empties into the left subclavian at the point of its juncture with the left jugular vein
lymph nodes vary in size
lymph nodes act as a ___ removing invading organisms and noxious agents filter
largest clusters of lymph nodes are found in the ____, ___, ___ & ___ regions cervical; axillary; mediastinal; inguinal
lymph nodes are located in ___/___ in the nervous system clusters; groups
what protects each lymph node? fibrous capsule
fibrous capsule is an outer shell of dense tissue around a lymph node
lymph nodules compact clusters of lymphocytes within the nodes, and form the node's main structure
what are the 2 main functions of lymph nodes? defense & white bell cell formation
lymph enters the nodes through what? several affarent lymph vessels
lymph exists the nodes through what? one efferent lymph vessel
once inside the node, lymph passes through nodal spaces called sinuses
lymph sinuses are lined with specialized cells called macrophages
the macrophages function is to engulf & destroy infectious agents
during physical exercise, lymph flow sunstantially increases, 10 to 15 fold
during a 24hr period ____ of lumph are pumped into the bloodstream 3 liters
What serves as the first line of protection against germs that enter the body through the nose and mouth? palatine tonsils & adenoids
the thymus gland lies in the mediastinum
the thymus consists of two lobes that contain lymphoid cells
in early development of the the thymus it learns tolerance
tolerance, learned by the thymus, is defines as learning to identify & accept the body's antigens
autoimmune disease occurs when this fails causing the immune system to attack its own antigens recognition & tolerance
the thymus gland is largest and performs its most important work during the prenatal & early childhood periods
the spleen is the largest of the lymphatic organs
the spleen is shaped like a(n) oversized lymph node
a fibrous capsule also surrounds the spleen
venous sinuses of the spleen are called red pulp
the red pulp of the spleen stores large numbers of red blood cells
the white pulp of the spleen contains lymphocytes
the serves as a valuable resiovior for blood to be used when needed
the spleen filters blood and removes microbes, using phagocytosis to destroy the microbes it filters
nongranular leukocytes complete maturation when the spleen assists with hematopoiesis
the spleen also destroys aging red blood cells and the ___ in the hemoglobin is stored for future use iron
function of the skin & mucous membranes as part of the immune system generate secretions that help block entry of disease-causing, or pathogenic agents
if bacteria passes the immune system's first line of defense it will then call on the inflammatory response or deploy specially sensitized cells to attack
the immune system is performed by lymphoid organs, lymphocytes, macrophages and antibodies
the immune system has specially designed proteins called antibodies
large pathogen-consuming cells found in various locations throughout the body are called macrophages
various locations throughout the body to find macrophages include brain, liver, blood, lymph nodes & spleen
natural immunity present at birth, its development does not require exposure to an antigen
natural immunity results in a(n) ___ ___ ___ against any foreigh organism non-specific defensive reaction
inflammation is characterized by heat, redness, pain & swelling
inflammation helps to contain infection
inflammation helps a return to normal by ____ the arrival of WBCs to the injured site stimulating
the WBCs surround & destroy bacteria, via phagocytosis neutrophils & macrophages
another set of lymphocytes that non-specifically attack tumor & virally infected cells by releasing cytokines natural killer (NK) cells
acquired active immunity results when presence of disease generates production of antibodies
antibodies created by acquired active immunity provide protection from further infection
modified toxin capable of inducing antibody production is called a vaccination
another way to acquire active immunity is through a bone marrow transplant
acquired passive immunity occurs when preformed antibodies are received to obtain protection from a disease
acquired passive immunity antibodies are not produced internally
one example of acquired passive immunity is the transfer of antibodies across the placental membrane
specific immunity bodies ability to target particular microorganisms by means of a specific immune response
specific immunity is provided by B & T cells
B & T cells are located in the red bone marrow
originate from stem cells in the red bone marrow both B & T cells
T cells travel from the red bone marrow to the thymus, where they mature
once matured B & T cells circulate to various lymph organs, but particulary to the lymph nodes & spleen
B cells do not attack ___ directly pathogens
antibody-producing plasma cells are from the family of immunoglobulins
some B cells, in the presence of an antigen, become antibody-producing plasma cells
immunoglobulins were called what by the Greeks? humors
humoral immunity immunoglobulins carried by the blood & lymph
when an antigen is encountered the B cell with that antigen receptor will bind to it & proliferate to become B memory cells
when an antigen is encountered the B cell with that antigen receptor will bind to it & activate to become plamsa cells
plasma cells make antibodies that will ___ to the same antigen bind
step 1 for B cells recognize a specific antigen
step 2 for B cells some B cells become plasma cells
step 3 for B cells immunoglobulins react with antigens
when T cells are presented with foreign antigens, they become ___ & begin to multiply rapidly sensitized
some of the sensitized T cells form cytotoxic cells
participate directly with destruction of antigens the cytotoxic cells
direct action of T cell lymphocytes destroying foreign substances
cell-mediated immunity immunity mediated by T lymphocytes, either through release of lymphokines or through causing cytotoxicity directly against unwanted substances
T cells also release ___ at site of infection to aid with antigen destruction by other cells cytokines
subsets of T cells within a clone are helper, suppressor, killer & memory T cells
helper, suppressor, killer & memory T cells serve a regulatory function for specific immune mechanisms
T cell activity begins when macrophage identifies an antigen, ingests it & transports it to a T cell sensitized to react with that antigen
the activated T cell divides repeatidly into a clone
killer T cells seek to destroy the antigen
helper T cells stimulate the T & B cells enhancing the immune system
suppressor T cells inhibit/stop immune response when antigen destroyed
memory T cells remember encounter with antigen to respond if antigen present in the future
derived from monocytes dendritic cells
dendritic cells are able to stimulate B&T cell response by ___ & presenting antigens to them binding
denritic cells are able to be exposed, in a lab culture, to an antigen and then infused into a patient
this plays a major role in specific immunity T-cell lymphocytes
Hypersensitivity reactions vary in degrees based on responsivness of host, amount & kind of allergen, route of entrance into body, timing of exposures & site of reaction
Anaphylaxis is a life-threatening hypersensitivity reaction that occurs throughout the body
characterized by hypotension, shock, respiratory distress, and edema of the larynx leading to airway obstruction Anaphylaxis
Created by: lfrancois