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Med Term Chapter 12

adenoids lymphatic tissue in the nasopharynx; pharyngeal tonsils
alveolus air sac in the lung
apex of the lung tip or uppermost portion of the lung. Apex is the tip of a structure. Apical means pertaing to or located at the apex. The apex of the heart is at the bottom of the heart
base of the lung lower portion of the lung; from the greek basis, foundation. Basilar means located at or in the base
bronchioles smallest branches of the bronchi. Terminal bronchioles lead to alveolar ducts
bronchus branch of the trachea that is the passageway into the lung; bronchial tube
diaphragm muscle separating the chest and abdomen. It contracts to pull air into the lungs and relaxes to push air out
epiglottis lid-like piece of cartilage that covers the larynx, preventing food from entering the larynx and trachea during swallowing
expiration breathing out exhalation
glottis slit-like opening to the larynx
hilum of the lung midline region where the bronchi, blood vessels, and nerves enter and exit the lungs. Hilar means pertaining to (at) the hilum
inspiration breathing in (inhalation)
larynx voice box; containing vocal cords
lobe division of a lung
mediastinum region between the lungs in the chest cavity. it contains the trachea, heart lymph nodes, aorta, esophagus, and bronchial tubes
nares nostrils
palatine tonsil one of a pair of almond-shaped masses of lymphatic tissue in the oropharynx
paranasal sinus one of the air cavities in the bones near the nose
parietal pleura outer layer of pleura lying closer to the ribs and chest wall
pharynx Throat; including the nasopharynx, oropharynx, and laryngopharynx
pleura double layered membrane surrounding each lung
pleural cavity space between the folds of the pleura
pulmonary parenchyma essential parts of the lung, responsible for respiration; bronchioles and alveoli
respiration process of moving air into and out of the lungs; breathing
trachea windpipe
visceral pleura inner layer of pleura lying closer to the lung tissue
adenoid/o adenoids
alveol/o alveolus, air sac
bronch/o bronchi/o bronchialbtube, bronchus
bronchiol/o bronchiole, small bronchus
capn/o carbon dioxide
coni/o dust
cyan/o blue
epiglott/o epiglottis
laryng/o larynx, voice box
lob/o lobe of the lung
mediastin/o mediastinum
nas/o nose
orth/o straight, upright
ox/o oxygen
pector/o chest
pharyng/o pharynx, throat
phon/o voice
phren/o diaphragm
pleur/o pleura
pneum/o, pneumon/o air, lung
pulmon/o lung
rhin/o nose
sinus/o sinus, cavity
spir/o breathing
tel/o complete
thorac/o chest
tonsill/o tonsils
trache/o trachea, windpipe
-ema conditition
-osmia smell
-pnea breathing
-ptysisis spitting
-sphyxia pulse
-thorax pleural cavity, chest
auscultation listening to sounds within the body (useful for diagnosing conditions of the lungs, pleura, heart, and abdomen as well as the condition of the fetus during pregnancy)
percussion tapping on a surface to determine the differences in the density of the underlying structure (solid organs-dull sound, air-filled- resonant hollow note, When lungs are filled with fluid pneumonia -dull sound)
pleural rub scratchy sound produced by pleural surfaces rubbing against each other (also called friction rub) occurs when pleura are roughened by inflammation, scarring, or neoplastic cells
rales (crackles) Fine crackling sounds heard on auscultation (during inhalation) when there is fluid in the alveoli. Heard in patients with pneumonia, bronchiectasis or acute bronchitis
rhonci loud rumbling sounds heard on auscultation of bronchi obstructed by sputum
sputum material expelled from the bronchi, lungs, or upper respiratory tract by spitting
stridor strained, high-pitched sound heard on inspiration caused by obstruction in the pharynx or larynx common causes: throat abscess, airway injury, croup, allergic reaction, epiglottitis, and laryngitis
wheezes continuous high-pitched whistling sounds produced during breathing Causes: airway through narrowed or obstructed airway, commonly experienced by patients with asthma or emphysema
croup acute viral infection of infants and children with obstruction of the larynx, accompanied by barking cough and stridor Cause: influenza virus or respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)
diphtheria acute infection of the throat and upper respiratory tract caused by the diphtheria bacterium immunity is developed with the DPT vaccine
epistaxis nosebleed causes: mucous membrane irritation, trauma, vitamin K deficiency, clotting abnormalities, blood-thinning medications or hypertension
pertussis whooping cough; highly contagious bacterial infection of the pharynx, larynx, and trachea caused by bordetela pertusis. Violent sudden attacks of coughing (paroxysmal) that ends in a loud whooping inspiration
asthma chronic bronchial inflammatory disorder with airway obstruction due to bronchial edema and constriction and increased mucus production. Signs and symptoms: dyspnea, wheezing, cough. Triggered by: allergies, exercise, strong odors, cold air, stress, meds
bronchiectasis chronic dilation of a bronchus, usually secondary to infection. Caused: chronic infection, results in loss of elasticity in bronchus Signs: cough, fever, expectoration of foul smelling purulent sputum.
chronic bronchitis Inflammation of bronchi persisting over a long time; type of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Signs: excessive secretion of infected mucus, productive cough, obstruction of respiratory passages.
Cystic fibrosis (CF) inherited disorder of exocrine glands resulting in thick mucinous secretions in the respiratory tract that do not drain normally. genetic disorder. No known cure. Bronchiectasis, airway obs, infection, respiratory failure
atelectasis collapsed lung; incomplete expansion of alveoli
emphysema hyperinflation of air sacs with destruction of alveolar walls. Breakdown of lung parenchyma causes pulmonary pressure to rise and right side of the heart must work harder to pump blood. Cuases cor pulmonale. form of COPD
lung cancer malignant tumor arising from lungs and bronchi. (most frequent fatal malignancy) divided into two general categories non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and small cell lung cancer (SCLC)
Non-small cell lung cancer 90% of lung cancers 3 types Adenocarcinoma, squamos cell carcinoma, and large cell lung cancer.
pneumonconiosis Abnormal condition caused by dust in the lungs with chronic inflammation, infection, and bronchitis
anthracosis form of pneumonconiosis, caused by coal dust known as black lung disease
asbestosis form of pneumonconiosis caused by asbestos particles which were used in the shipbuilding and construction trades
silicosis form of pneumonconiosis, caused by silica (rocks or glass) also called grinders disease.
pneumonia acute inflammation ad infection of alveoli, which fill with pus or products of the inflammatory reaction
pulmonary abscess large collection of pus (bacterial infection) in the lungs
pulmonary edema fluid in the air sacs and bronchioles. Caused by inability of the heart to pump blood. Blood backs up in the pulmonary vessels and fluid seeps into the alveoli and bronchioles
pulmonary embolism clot or other material lodges in vessels of the lung. Can cause area of necrotic tissue to form-pulmonary infarction causes acute pleuritic chest pain (pain on inspiration), blood in sputum, fever, and respiratory insufficiency. CT angiography diagnosis
pulmonary fibrosis formation of scar tissue in the connective tissue of the lungs
sarcoidosis chronic inflammatory disease in which small nodules develop in lungs, lymph nodes, and other organs
Tuberculosis (TB) infectious disease caused by mycobacterium tuberculosis; lungs usually are involved but any organ in the body may be affected. Rod-shaped bacteria called bacilli
mesothelioma Rare malignant tumor arising in the pleura (usually caused by asbestos exposure)
pleural effusion abnormal accumulation of fluid in the pleural space. Two types: exudates (fluid from tumors and infections) and transudates (fluid from congestive heart failure, pulmonary embolism, or cirrhosis)
pleurisy (pleuritis) inflammation of the pleura
pneumothorax collection of air in the pleural space
anthracosis coal dust accumulates in the lungs
asbestosis asbestos particles accumulate in the lungs
bacilli rod-shaped bacteria
chronic obstructive pulmonary disease chronic condition of persistent obstruction of air flow through bronchial tubes and lungs. caused by smoking, air pollution, chronic infection, and asthma. Chronic Bronchitis "Blue bloaters" emphysema "pink puffers"
cor pulmonale failure of the right side of the heart to pump a sufficient amount of blood to the lungs because of underlying lung disease
exudates fluid, cells, and other substances (pus) that filter from cells or capillaries ooze into lesions or areas of inflammation
hydrothorax collection of fluid in the pleural cavity
infiltrate collection of fluid or other material within the lung, as seen on a chest film, CT scan, or other radiologic image
palliative relieving symptoms, but not curing the disease
paroxysmal pertaining to a sudden occurrence, such as spasm or seizure; oxysm/o means sudden
pulmonary infarction area of necrosis (death of lung tissue)
purulent containing pus
silicosis disease due to silica or glass dust in the lungs; occurs in mining occupations
Chest X-Ray (CXR) radiographic image of the thoracic cavity
computed tomography (CT) scan of the chest computer-generated series of x-ray images show thoracic structures in cross section and other planes. CT pulmonary angiography (CTPA) is the combination of CT scanning and angiography. diagnosis pulmonary embolism
MRI of the chest Magnetic waves create detailed images of the chest in frontal, lateral, and cross-sectional planes. defines mediastinal tumors (such as those seen in hodgkin disease)
Positron Emission tomography (PET) scan of the lung radioactive glucose is injected, and images reveal metabolic activity in the lungs
Ventilation-perfusion (V/Q) scan detection device records radioactivity in the lung after intravenous injection of a radioisotope and inhalation of a small amount of radioactive gas (xenon). tests air flow (V) and blood flow (Q)
bronchoscopy fiberoptic endoscope examination of the bronchial tubes
bronchoalveolar lavage (bronchial washing) fluid is injected and withdrawn
Bronchial brushing brush is inserted through the bronchoscope and is used to scrape off tissue
endobronchial ultrasound (EBUS) performed during bronchoscopy to diagnose and stage lung cancer
endotracheal intubation placement of a tube through the mouth into the pharynx, larynx, and trachea to establish an airway also allows patient to be placed on a ventilator
laryngoscopy visual examination of the voice box
lung biopsy removal of lung tissue followed by microscopic examination
mediastinoscopy endoscopic visual examination of the mediastinum
pulmonary function tests (PFTs) tests that measure the ventilation mechanics of the lungs: airay function, lung volume, and the capacity of the lungs to exchange oxygen and carbon dioxide efficiently
Obstructive lung disease airways are narrowed, which results in resistance to air flow during breathing examples asthma, COPD, bronchiectasis, cystif fibrosis, and bronchiolitis
FEV(.1) forced expiratory volume volume in the first second
restrictive lung disease expansion of the lung is limited by disease that affects the chest wall, pleura, or lung tissue itself. Caused by: pulmonary fibrosis, radiation damage, pneumoconiosis, myasthenia gravis, muscular dystrophy, and diaphragmatic weakness and paralysis
Total lung capacity (abr) TLC
Diffusion capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide DL(.)CO patient breathes a small amount of carbon monoxide and the length of time it takes the gas to enter the bloodstream is measured.
thoracentesis surgical puncture to remove fluid from the pleural space
thoracotomy large surgical incision of the chest
thoracoscopy (thorascopy) visual examination of the chest via small incisions and use of an endoscope
tracheostomy surgical creation of an opening into the trachea through the neck
tuberculin test determines past or present tuberculous infection based on a positive skin reaction
Heaf Test and Tine test tuberculosis tests using purified protein derivative (PPD) applied with multiple punctures of the skin
Mantoux Test Using PPD given by intraepidermal injection
tube thoracostomy A flexible plastic chest tube is passed into the pleural space through an opening in the chest
ABGs arterial blood gases
AFB acid-fast bacillus-the type of organism that causes tuberculosis
ARDS acute respiratory distress syndrome-severe, sudden lung injury caused by acute illness
BAL bronchoalveolar lavage
Bronch bronchoscopy
CF cystic fibrosis
COPD Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease associated with emphysema and asthma
CPAP continuous positive airway pressure
CPR cardiopulmonary resuscitation-CAB circulation, airway, breathing
C&S culture and sensitivity testing (of sputum)
CTPA computed tomography pulmonary angiography
CXR Chest X-Ray
DL(.)CO Diffusion capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide
DOE dyspnea on exertion
DPT diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus
FEV(.)1 forced expiratory volume in 1 second
FVC forced vital capacity (amount of gas that can be forcibly and rapidly exhaled after a full inspiration)
ICU intensive care unit
LLL left lower lobe (of lung)
LUL left upper lobe (of lung)
MAC mycobacterium avium complex. The cause of noncontagious lung infection related to tuberculosis
MDI metered-dose inhaler
NSCLC non-small cell lung cancer
OSA obstructive sleep apnea
PACO(.)2 carbon dioxide partial pressure (measure of amount of carbon dioxide in arterial blood)
PaO(.)2 oxygen partial pressure (a measure of the amount of oxygen in arterial blood)
PCP pneumocystis pneumonia- a type of pneumonia seen in patients with AIDS or other immunosuppression
PE pulmonary embolism
PEP positive expiratory pressure
PEEP Positive-end-expiratory pressure
PFTs pulmonary function tests
PND paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea
PPD purified protein derivative-substance used in TB tests
RDS respiratory distress syndrome-in the newborn infant. marked by dyspnea and cyanosis and related to absence of surfactant also called hyaline membrane disease
RLL Right Lower Lobe (of lung)
RML Right middle lobe (of lung)
RSV respiratory syncytial virus-common cause of bronchiolitis, bronchopneumonia, and the common cold, especially in children
RUL Right upper lobe (of lung)
RV residual volume amount of air remaining in lungs at the end of maximal expiration
SABA short-acting beta agonist
SCLC small cell lung cancer
SOB shortness of breath
TB tuberculosis
TLC total lung capacity-volume of gas in the lungs at the end of maximal inspiration
URI upper repiratory infection
V(.)T tidal volume-amount of air inhaled and exhaled during a normal ventilation
VATS video-assisted thoracic surgery (thoracoscopy)
VC vital capacity-equals inspiratory reserve volume plus expiratory reerve volume plus tidal volume
V/Q scan ventilation-perfusion scan- radioactive test of lung ventilation and blood perfusion throughout the lung capillaries
Created by: Joshmay1996
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