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AP Ch. 9 Development

AP Human Geography Chapter 9

the process of improving the ________ conditions of people through the diffusion of ____________ and ____________ material; knowledge; technology
what are MDCs also known as developed countries and core countries
what are LDCs also known as least developed, underdeveloped countries or peripheral countries
what are developing countries also known as newly industrializing, emerging, or semi-peripheral
what countries make up BRICs Brazil, Russia, India, China
what do natural resources have a major impact on the developement of a region
women are paid ________ for equal work in MDCs and LDCs less
women work _________ hours than men in almost all countries more
according to the core-periphery model, how many regions can the world be divided into and what are those regions 4: core, upward transition, downward transition, resource frontiers
what are some characteristics of core regions metropolitan, powerful, technologically advanced, high standard of living, MDCs
what would be some core regions in the united states washington DC, new york, bosnywash
cities and urban areas are so close megalopolis
areas of growth and development outside of the core ( gaining jobs and industry) upward transition regions
what region would have a loss of industry and jobs downward transition regions
what would be a downward transition area in the united states rust belt
area with resources to provide to the industrial core resource frontier
in what regions do people have to develop infrastructure to transport the resources resource frontier
what is a modern resource frontier in the united states alaska
what was the resource frontier in the 1880s california
according to Wallerstein's world systems theory what are the 3 regions core, periphery, and semi-periphery
what kind of jobs are a part of the primary sector raw materials/ extraction
what kind of jobs are a part of the secondary sector manufacturing
what kind of jobs are a part of the teritary sector services- includes: sales, transportation, healthcare, law, restaurants, etc.
what kind of jobs do core regions have tertiary
what kind of jobs do periphery regions have primary
what kind of jobs do semi-periphery regions have secondary
can we answer the "why of where" question looking at economic sectors yes- each place's economic sector is due to its amount of technology
criticism of rostow's model 1. based on western ideal of _____________ 2. assumes that all countries will develop like __________________ historically developed 3. is a ________________ pattern, though not all countries will develop in a linear manner 1. mass consumption 2. western countries 3. linear
idea that countries will always reach highest level of development no matter what- only difference is time developmentalism
developmentalism predicts that all countries will eventually reach the ______________ level of development highest
criticism of developmentalism is that it is not an ___________________ system, core countries have advantages that peripheral countries do not equal opportunity
the rich and powerful keep a portion of the population dependent upon them in order to control available resources dependency theory
can the dependency theory be applied to individual countries on a global scale yes
ex. of the dependency theory: core countries keep peripheral countries underdeveloped in order to have access to their ____________________ cheap labor and resources
a city that is more than double the size of every other city in the country primate city
what does a primate city and colonialism equal where the colonial government is built nice houses, transportation, and hospitals; this attracts people
what other model does Rostow's model explain the DTM
what is the birth rate, death rate and NIR in stage 1 of Rostow's model and what kind of region is it and explain why birth: high death: high NIR: low periphery region no medical technology; rely on farming
what is the birth rate, death rate and NIR in stage 2 of Rostow's model and what kind of region is it and explain why birth: high death: started to drop NIR: slowly rising transition between periphery and semi-periphery people are starting to live longer
what is the birth rate, death rate and NIR in stage 3 of Rostow's model and what kind of region is it and explain why birth: falling death: falling NIR: rising semi-periphery shift to industry
what is the birth rate, death rate and NIR in stage 4 of Rostow's model and what kind of region is it and explain why birth: leveling out death: low NIR: level transition between semi- periphery and core diversification
what is the birth rate, death rate and NIR in stage 5 of Rostow's model and what kind of region is it and explain why birth: low death: higher than CBR NIR: negative core region more service jobs
at what stage of Rostow's model is the welfare system fully developed stage 5
what are the names of the stages of Rostow's model 1. traditional society 2. transitional stage 3. take off 4. drive to maturity 5. high mass consumption
where do MDCs seem to be located in the north
where do LDCs seem to be located in the south
why is Australia a MDC but in the south oldest British colony
measurement of life enjoyment standard of living
what does per capita mean per head
total number of goods and services produced by a country divided by the total population GDP per captia
what is the problem with using the GDP per capita for predicting standard of living within a country everybody makes a different amount
measures income disparity between the wealthiest and the poorest in a country (100 is the highest and worst score) Gini coefficient
what 3 things make up the physical quality of life index literacy rate, life expectancy, infant mortality rate
what system is used more than anything else to measure development Human Development Index (HDI)
developed to gain a predictor of standard of living by evaluating both the productivity of a country and social factors HDI
what economic factors make up the HDI GDP per capita
what social factors make up the HDI literacy rate, level of education, life expectancy
on the HDI what is the highest and best score 1
evaluates gender inequality by comparing per capita income, school inrollment, literacy, life expectancy gender-related development index (GDI)
evaluated gender equality by comparing per capita income and types of jobs held by women (technical/administrative (tertiary) versus labor or basic jobs (primary) ) gender empowerment measurement (GEM)
what is the current way of measuring gender equality Gender inequality index (GII)
what 3 factors is the GII based on reproductive health (maternal mortality ration and adolescent fertility rate), empowerment (share of parliamentary seats), labor market participation
what does a high score on the GII mean lots of gender inequality
the idea to produce as many goods as possible domestically self-sufficiency
taxes on imports tariffs
government pays people to produce a specific good subsidies
what do tariffs encourage people to buy domestic products
what does self-sufficiency focus on reducing poverty instead of individual wealth
countries can increase their development by trading with other countries international trade
what kind of organization is the WTO supranational
goals of the WTO reduce barriers to international trade; allow for easier movement of money between countries; enforce trade agreements
can countries file a complaint with the WTO if another country violated a trade agreement yes
gives countries loans to complete development projects foreign direct investment
provides loans to countries to complete specific development projects such as strengthening infrastructure, financial institutions, transportation modes, and service projects world bank
do loans given out by IMF have to have a specific project no
gives loans to countries who are financially insecure to help stabilize their economy international monetary fund (IMF)
aid is not a loan, but a payment of money to help them complete development goals foreign development aid
what does NGO stand for non- governmental organizations
loaning small amounts of money microcredit
where did Grameen bank start Bangladesh
who does Grameen bank give most of their loans to impoverished people especially women
does Grameen bank give loans with collateral no
what is the percentage of repayment to grameen bank 98%
emphasis on conservation of resources for future generations sustainable development
what does sustainable development require development of renewable energy sources
what does sustainable development try to balance economic growth without jeopardizing the environment
what are the 8 UN millennium development goals 1end extreme poverty and hunger2achieve universal primary education3promote gender equality&empower women4reduce child mortality5improve maternal health6combat HIV/AIDS&other diseases7ensure environ. sustainability8develop a global partnership for develop
what are the 17 UN sustainable development goals 1no poverty2 0 hunger3good health&well-being4good edu5gender =6/7clean water&energy8decent work&eco. growth9indust,innovate.infra.10reduce in=11sustain.cities12 respons.consumption13climate action14/15water&land life16 peace institute17partner2reach goal
what years were used to achieve the millennium development goals 2000-2015
what years were used to achieve the sustainable development goals 2015-2030
when was the 1st time the world got together to create development goals UN millennium development goals 2000-2015
gross value of a product minus the costs of raw materials and energy value added
development of core regions at the expense of those on the periphery uneven development
portion of economy concerned with transportation, communications and utilities, sometimes extended to the provision of all goods and services to people in exchange for payment tertiary sector
quantity of something that producers have available for sale supply
economic policies imposed on LDCs by international agencies to create conditions encouraging international trade, such as raising taxes, reducing government spendings, controlling inflation, selling pubicly owned utilities to private coroporations structural adjustment program
portion of the economy concerned with manufacturing useful products through processing, transforming, and assembling raw materials secondary sector
resource that has a theoretically unlimited supply and is not depleted when used by humans renewable energy
materials from a nuclear reaction that emit radiation radioactive waste
amount of money needed in one country to purchase the same goods and services in another country purchasing power parity
amount of a resource remaining in discovered deposits proven reserves
value of a particular product compared to the amount of labor needed to make it productivity
portion of economy concerned with the direct extraction of materials form Earth's surface primary sector
amount of a resource in deposits not yet identified but thought to exist potential reserve
solar energy cell, usually made from silicon that collects solar rays to generate electricity photovoltaic cells
solar energy systems that collect energy without the use of mechanical devices passive solar energy systems
source of energy that has a finite supply capable of being exhausted nonrenewable energy
8 international development goals that all members of the UN have agreed to achieve by 2015 millennium development goals
provision of small loans and other financial services to individuals and small businesses in developing countries microfinance
the number of women who die diving birth per 100,000 births maternal mortality ratio
the percentage of a country's people who can read and write literacy rate
modification of the HDI to account for inequality within a country inequality adjusted HDI
power generated from moving water hydroelectric power
indicator of the levels of development for each country, constructed by the UN that is based on income, literacy, education, and life expectancy HDI
rapid increase in the value of houses followed by a sharp decline in their value housing bubble
value of the output of goods and services produced in a country in a year, including money that leaves and enters the country gross national income
value of the total output of goods and services produced in a country in a given time period gross domestic product
energy from steam or hot water produced from hot or molten underground rocks geothermal energy
measure of the extent of each country's gender inequality gender inequality index
creation of energy by joining the nuclei of 2 hydrogen atoms to form helium fusion
pumping water at high pressure to break apart rocks in order to release natural gas fracking
energy source formed from the residue of plants and animals buried millions of years ago fossil fuels
investment made by a foreign company in the economy of another country foreign direct investment
splitting of an atomic nucleus to release energy fission
percentage of women hold full time jobs outside the home female labor force participation rate
alternative to international trade that emphasizes small business and worker owned democratically run cooperatives fair trade
process of improvement in the material conditions of people through diffusion of knowledge and technology development
a country that is at a relatively early stage in the process of economic development developing countries
a country that has progressed relatively far along a continuum of development developed countries
the quantity of something that consumers are willing and able to buy demand
a nuclear power plant that creates its own fuel from plutonium breeder reactor
fuel that derives from plant material and animal waste biomass fuel
the number of births per 1,000 women ages 15 to 19 adolescent fertility rate
solar energy systems that collects energy through the use of mechanical devices such a s photovoltaic cells or flat-plate collectors active solar energy system
Created by: dancer2024
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