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Roman Achievements

Roman Engineering & Architecture

TermDefinition
Appian Way one of the earliest and strategically most important Roman roads of the ancient republic.
aqueduct a structure that uses gravity and slope to carry water from the mountains to the city of Rome over a long distance. Emperor Claudius built the first one.
Colosseum a large amphitheater built in Rome by Emperor Vespasian around 70AD, Site of gladiatorial games, naval battles, and executions of prisoners and early Christians.
Pantheon Famous temple to all the gods built by Emperor Hadrian of Ancient Rome, in about 126 AD. The building is circular with a unique concrete dome, featuring an "oculus" or opening in the ceiling.
oculus Latin meaning "eye"; the opening at the top of the dome of the Pantheon, allowing light and air into the center of the structure
Circus Maximus ancient Roman chariot racing stadium; It was the largest stadium in ancient Rome; seating 250.000 people, one quarter of Rome's population.
cuniculus water channels created by the Etruscans by digging holes perpendicular to the flow of underground streams used for irrigation
Baths of Caracalla the largest public "thermae" in the world when completed in 217 AD, covering 27 acres and could serve 1600 citizens of all classes. Featured hot & cold pools, steam rooms, libraries, track, gardens and more.
Caesar's Bridge Mile-long wooden structure constructed in just 10 days across the Rhine River by Roman legions to demonstrate the power of Rome to the barbarian Germanic tribes.
keystone arch Roman engineering innovation that provided more strength, saved time and building materials, and allowed construction of much taller buildings and aqueducts
Roman concrete A unique and very durable mortar that mixed limestone with volcanic ash (pozzolana)that could even harden underwater.
vaulted ceiling Roman innovation using overlapping arches to create a tunnel or domed opening
Trajan's Forum and Market Public space carved out of a hillside in downtown Rome, featuring basilicas, gardens, libraries and 150 shops. The first shopping mall.
groma device used by Roman engineers to sight lines and distance for building roads, aqueducts, etc. Consisted of a pole with crossed rods at a 90 degree angle balanced on the top, with lead weights dangling from the end of each rod.
Hadrian's Wall 73-mile long system of fortifications and ditches built in northern Britain to provide discipline for the roman legions and secure the frontier against the barbarian Celts and Picts.
vallum 125-foot wide system of ditches that ran the length of Hadrian's Wall in northern Britain
Created by: bottleguy