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Chapter 10 MedTerm

Nervous System

QuestionAnswer
the difference between glia cells and neurons neurons cannot reproduce; glial cells can reproduce
gyri (gyrus) convolutions- produces a rounded ride on the surface of the cerebral cortex
sulci (sulcus) fissures- depression or groove in the surface of the cerebral cortex
CSF (cerebrospinal fluid) protects the brain and spinal cord-circulates between membranes around the brain
Six structures of the brain Cerebrum, thalamus, hypothalamus, cerebellum, pons, and medulla oblongata
hypothamalus (activity) neurons that control body temperature, sleep, appetite, sexual desire, and emotions such as fear and pleasure. (produces and regulates hormones - pituitary gland) (below the thalamus
thalamus selectively processing and relaying sensory information to the cerebral cortex- maintaining awareness and consciousness (above hypothalamus)
cerebellum (posterior) voluntary movements and to maintain balance and posture
pons the brainstem- connection of nerve and nerve fibers pathways eyes and face
medulla oblongata also in brainstem- controls breathing, heartbeat, and the size of the blood vessels; nerve fibers cross over
afferent sensory ex. responds to heat detects excess heat and sends impulse through central the nervous system- carries messages toward the brain and spinal cord (toward)
efferent neuron carries messages away .. spinal cord to the efferent organs (skeletal muscle) ex. causes muscles to contract as a reflex to move the body away from the heat
subdural hematoma collection of blood outside the brain- (head injuries) tearing between the dura and arachnoid membranes
epidural hematoma the bleeding between the inside of the skull and the outer covering of the brain (dura) - ruptured meningeal artery
hydocephalus abnormal accumulation of fluid (CSF) in the brain-fluid accumulates under pressure in the ventricles of the brain
spina bifida defects in the lumber spinal column caused by imperfect union of the vertebral parts (spine and spinal cord don't form properly)
myelomeningocele the meninges and spinal cord protrude to the outside of the body- (external sac contains meninges, CSF)
epilepsy chronic brain disorder- recurrent seizure activity
multiple sclerosis destruction of the myelin sheath on neurons in the CNS (central nervous system) and its replacement by plaques of sclerotic tissue (lack communication with brain and rest of the body)
Parkinson's disease neurons in the basal ganglia, occurring in later life and leading to tremors, weakness of muscles, and slowness of movement
demyelination destruction of myelin on axons of neurons (as in multiple sclerosis)
Brain tumor (gliomas) or (meningiomas) a malignant tumor of glial tissue of the nervous system
CVA cerebrovascular accident
3 causes of stroke thrombotic, embolic, hemorrhagic= occlusions are treated with TPA
Electroencephalography (EEG) recording of the electrical activity of the brain
lumbar puncture (LP) (CSF- cerebrospinal fluid) withdrawn from between two lumbar vertebrae for analysis
absence seizure form of seizure consisting of momentary clouding of consciousness and loss of awareness of surroundings
aneurysm enlarged, weakened area in arterial wall, which may rupture, leading to hemorrhage and CVA stroke
astrocytoma malignant tumor of astrocytes (glial brain cells)
embolus clot of material that travels through the bloodstream and suddenly blocks a vessel
occlusion blockage
TIA transient ischemic attack, can occur thrombolytic, embolic, and even hemorrhagic
tonic clonic seizure major (grand mal) convulsive seizure marked by sudden loss of consciousness, stiffening of muscles, and twitching and jerking movements
CVA cerebrovascular accident
EEG electroencephalography
LP lumbar puncture
MS multiple sclerosis
TIA transient ischemic attack, temporary interference with the blood supply to the brain
TPA tissue plasminogen activator; a clot dissolving drug used as therapy for stroke
comat/o deep sleep (coma)
lex/o word, phrase
phasia speech
paresis weakness
lepsy seizure
kinesia movement
syncop/o to cut off, cut short
tax/o order, coordination
sthenia strength
esthesia feeling, nervous sensation
radicul/o nerve root (of spinal nerves)
synapse space between nerve cells
plexus network of nerve fibers
dendrite branching fiber that is first part of a neuron to receive a nervous impulse
myelin sheath protective fatty tissue that surrounds the axon of a nerve cell
cauda equina collection of spinal nerves below the end of the spinal cord
oligodendroglia neuroglial cell that produce myelin
cerebral cortex outer region of the largest part of the brain; composed of gray matter
subarachroid space contains cerebrospinal fluid
embolism obstruction of a blood vessel by a clot or foreign substance
acetylocholine substance that helps transmit a nervous impulse
neurasthenia lack of strength in nerves
dysPHASIA difficult speech
anALGESIA a condition of insensitivity to pain
hemiPLEGIA paralysis of right or left of the body
dysESTHESIA condition of painful nervous sensations
glioBLASTOMA tumor of immature brain cells
pia mater the innermost meningeal membrane
astrocyte (astrogial cell) a star shaped glial cell of the CNS
capillary branching blood vessel that form network
modified phagocyte a type of cell within the body capable of engulfing and absorbing bacteria
Created by: naldin1