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Psych development

ch 7 development of human Locomotion

QuestionAnswer
Why is it important to know what motor development looks like? Deviance : understand the path way of motor development it acts as an indicator when someone isn’t developing
How infants move- difference between spontaneous movement & infantile reflexes Spontaneous – simulation isn’t necessary : supine kicking – rhythmical and coordinated Infantile reflexes – stimulation needed
Primitive reflex Palmer grasp – closing hand around a stimulus
Postural reactions – do they go away? No
Locomotor -how you move -ex. Creeping, crawling, swimming
Why should we be careful when attempting to assess the neurological status of an infant? Interaction of a lot of different things – individual task and environment. Develop at different rates.
Structural reflex hard wired
Functional reflex results do to us wanting to survive (better breathing in womb)
Motor milestones fundamental motor skill
Development of Postural Control and Balance in Infancy These findings suggest there is a problem in infants being able to effectively couple visual information to motor response needed for balance
The First Voluntary Locomotor Efforts Creeping and Crawling
creeping moving on hands and knees
crawling moving on hands and stomach, in a “combat crawl”
Walking is defined by... a 50% phasing relationship between the legs as well as a period of double support (both feet on ground) then followed by single support
First Steps: Characteristics of Early Walking -Short stride, feet wide, wide base of support -Arms up in high guard (not swinging) at first -then later will drop lower with improved balance
What do you need to stand on your own two feet? strength & balance
Rate Limiters in Early Walking Muscular Strength & Balance
Addressing Atypical Walking Development in Down Syndrome Studies have shown that treadmill intervention is successful in encouraging the emergence of independent walking in infants with Down syndrome
Developmental Changes in Walking During Early Childhood By age 4 years the proficient walking patterns we just demonstrated are developed
Developmental Changes in Walking During Older Adulthood -Changes in walking occur even in younger adults, but this is mostly due to individual factors (e.g., diet, injury, exercise, etc.) -Shorter step length, More toed out, Less ankle extension, Less pelvic rotation, Slower walking speed
Rate Limiters in Later Walking as pain, disease, and fear of falling
Characteristics of Early Running -Limited range of motion in legs (less extension/flexion), thus short stride -Brief flight period -Arms extend at elbows and swing to side (rather than backward), thus not useful in moving body forward
Rate Limiters in Early Running STRENGTH BALANCE
Rate Limiters in Later Running inability to generate force, balance, and opportunity/desire to run
Difference in walking and running running you have a brief flight period
Jumping individuals propel themselves off the ground with one or both feet and then land on both feet
how can we tell if someone is a proficient jumper age, distance or height, form
what happens to our jump as we age? As we age we are able to achieve more complex jumps
can you skip the order of jumps needed to learn throughout age? no, Basic skill development in children is a gradual process of refining skills
Characteristics of Early Jumping -Slight crouch before jumping -Legs not fully extended at liftoff -Legs are tucked during jump (rather than extended) -Favor one leg to jump rather than using both legs -Arms high guard and might “wing”
when can children can change their trunk angle at takeoff to make either a vertical or horizontal jump? age 3
How can you become a proficient jumper? Practice Work on form and technique -do opposite of negative things Genetics
Proficient Jumping -Get into a preparatory crouch -Take off for a horizontal jump with the heels coming off the ground and with both feet leaving the ground at the same time -Extend the arms backward, then initiate the takeoff
In jumping for height, proficient jumpers do the following -Direct force downward and extend the body throughout flight -Keep the trunk relatively upright throughout the jump -Flex the ankles, knees, and hips on touchdown to allow the force of landing to be absorbed
In jumping for distance proficient jumpers do the following -Direct force down and the trunk appears to tip forward -Flex the knees during flight -Swing the lower legs forward for a two-foot landing -Let the trunk come forward in reaction to the thigh flexing -Flex ankles and knees when the heels touch ground
How do we improve our jumping? Practice, and continuous. Growth in. body. Size. &. Strength
Rate Limiters in Jumping Ability to generate force or power
Hopping Ability to generate force or power
Characteristics of Early Hopping not great arm control, swinging leg is stationary , jumping & landing we want – flexion, in air - extension
Proficient Hopping -The swing leg must lead the hip -The support leg must extend fully -The arms must move in opposition to the legs -The support leg must flex at landing to absorb the force of the landing and to prepare for extension at the next takeoff
Developmental Changes in Hopping -preschool years as the time when children become proficient hoppers (e.g., Gutteridge, 1939) - hopping continues to develop well past the age of 5
Rate Limiter in Hopping Coordination & Balance
Galloping and sliding occurs when individuals propel themselves with one foot and then land on the other foot
Galloping individual moves forward
Sliding individual moves sideways
Skipping a step and a hop on the same foot, with alternating feet
Characteristics of Early Skill Patterns Children’s early attempts are usually arrhythmic and stiff
Proficient Skill Pattern In contrast, proficient children are rhythmical and relaxed
Proficient Skill Patterns -The arms are no longer needed for balance -In skipping, the arms swing opposition to the legs -The arms for another purpose during galloping and sliding -Knees “give” on landing, flexed while they support the body’s weight, extend at takeoff
What is the first of these three bipedal patterns to emerge? Galloping
What is the third of these three bipedal patterns to emerge? Skipping
Developmental Changes in Galloping, Sliding, and Skipping A beginner uses arms inconsistently, then bilaterally, and finally, a skilled skipper uses them in opposition to their legs
Created by: rmart11