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Chapter 14

Crusades a series of wars carried out by European Christians to gain control of the Holy Land from their Muslim rulers
Holy Land region that included Jerusalem and the area around it, considered holy by Jews, Christians, and Muslims
Pope Urban II Roman catholic pope from 1088 to 1099; he called on Christians to launch the First Crusade.
Saladin Muslim sultan and hero; he campaigned to drive the Christians from the Holy Land. He stopped an army of crusaders under Richard the Lion-Hearted of England
Richard the Lion-Hearted King of England from 1189 to 1199; he fought in the Holy Land against Saladin during the Third Crusade
Hanseatic League an organization of north-German cities and towns that organized and controlled trade throughout northern Europe from 1200s through the 1400s
Credit an arrangement by which a purchaser borrows money from a bank or other lender and agrees to pay it back over time
Guilds associations of people who worked at the same craft or trade during the middle ages
Apprentice a person who learns a skill under a master of the trade
Journeyman a skilled worker who was paid wages by the master of a guild
Gothic a style of church architecture developed during the 1100s characterized by tall spires and flying buttresses
Flying Buttress and arched stone support on the outside of buildings, which allows builders to construct higher walls
Illumination the process of decorating a written manuscript with pictures or designs
Hildegard of Bingen Medieval nun and author; she wrote dozens of poems and music to accompany them
Troubadours traveling singers who entertained people during the Middle Ages
Geoffrey Chaucer English poet
Dante Alighieri Italian poet and humanist
Thomas Aquinas Italian philosopher and theologian
Scholasticism In the middle ages, the theological and philosophical school of thought that attempted to reconcile faith and reason
Heresy an opinion that goes against the teachings of a church
Inquisitions institution of the Roman Catholic Church that sought to eliminate heresy
Friars members of certain Roman Catholic religious orders
Hundred Years´ War war fought between France and England for control of the French throne
Joan of Arc French solider and national heroine
Wars of the Roses civil war for the English crown between the York (white rose) and Lancaster (red rose) families
Henry VII King of England; he defeated Richard III for the throne
Black Death a terrible outbreak of bubonic plague that swept through Europe
Created by: jaqwann001