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Crusades Series of wars carried out by European Christians to gain control of the Holy Land from the Muslims
Holy Land Region that included Jerusalem and the area around it, considered holy
Pope Urban II Catholic Pope from 1088 to 1099; called on Christians to start the first Crusade
Saladin Muslim sultan and hero; campaigned to drive to drive the Christians out of the Holy Land
Richard the Lion-Hearted King of England from 1189 to 1199; fought in the Holy Land against Saladin during the Third Crusade
Hanseatic League Organization of of North German cities that controlled trade
credit arrangement by which a purchaser borrows money from a bank and agrees to pay it back over time
guilds Associations of people who worked at the same craft or trade
apprentice Person who learns a skill under a master of the trade
journeyman Skilled worker who was paid by the master of a guild
Gothic Style of church architecture characterized by tall spires and flying buttresses
flying buttress Arched stone support on the outside of buildings
illumination Decorating a written manuscript with pictures or designs
Hildegard of Bingen Medieval nun and author; she wrote any poems
troubadours Travelling singers who entertained people during the Middle Ages
Geoffrey Chaucer English poet; wrote The Canterbury Tales
Dante Alighieri Italian poet and humanist; wrote The Divine Comedy
Thomas Aquinas Italian philosopher and theologian; argued that rational thought could support Catholicism
Scholasticism Theological and philosophical school of thought
heresy Opinion that goes against the teachings of the church
Inquisitions Institution of the Roman Catholic Church that sought to eliminate heresy
friars Members of certain Roman Catholic religious orders
Hundred Years´ War War fought between France and England for control of the French throne
Joan of Arc French soldier and national heroine; she rallied french troops and was burned for heresy
Wars of the Roses Civil war for the crown of England between York and Lancaster
Henry VII King of England; the first king from the House of Tudor
Black Death Outbreak of the bubonic plague that swept through Europe
Created by: wesleycarver