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Animal Anatomy Vocab

studyguide for vocab

TermDefinition
monogastric having a stomach with only a single compartment
mouth the natural opening through which food passes into the body of an animal and which in vertebrates is typically bounded externally by the lips and internally by the pharynx and encloses the tongue, gums, and teeth
esophagus a muscular tube that conveys food from the mouth to the stomach and passes from the pharynx down the neck between the trachea and the spinal column and behind the left bronchus where it pierces the diaphragm slightly to the left of the mid
stomach a saclike expansion of the digestive tract of a vertebrate that is located between the esophagus and duodenum and typically consists of a simple often curved sac with an outer serous covering, a strong muscular wall that contracts rhythmically
small intestine the narrow part of the intestine that lies between the stomach and colon, consists of duodenum, jejunum, and ileum, secretes digestive enzymes, and is the chief site of the digestion of food into small molecules which are absorbed into the body
cecum a cavity open at one end (such as the blind end of a duct)
large intestine a cavity open at one end (such as the blind end of a duct)
rectum a cavity open at one end (such as the blind end of a duct)
ruminant the terminal part of the intestine from the sigmoid colon to the anus
rumen the large first compartment of the stomach of a ruminant in which cellulose is broken down by the action of symbiotic microorganisms
reticulum the second compartment of the stomach of a ruminant in which folds of the mucous membrane form hexagonal cells
omasum the third chamber of the ruminant stomach that is situated between the reticulum and the abomasum
abomasum the fourth compartment of the ruminant stomach that follows the omasum and has a true digestive function
salivary gland a small organ that produces saliva in the mouth
gallbladder a membranous muscular sac in which bile from the liver is stored
pancreas a large lobulated gland of vertebrates that secretes digestive enzymes and the hormones insulin and glucagon
cardiac valve any of the valves that control blood flow to and from the heart and that include the atrioventricular valves, the aortic valve, and the pulmonary valve
pyloric valve the circular fold of mucous membrane containing a ring of circularly disposed muscle fibers that closes the vertebrate pylorus
villi a small slender often vascular process
absorption the process of absorbing something or of being absorbed
alimentary tract the tubular passage typically extending from the mouth to the anus or cloaca that functions in digestion and absorption of food and elimination of residual waste and that in most mammals
accessory digestive organ An organ that helps with digestion but is not part of the digestive tract. The accessory digestive organs are the tongue, salivary glands, pancreas, liver, and gallbladder.
crop a pouched enlargement of the esophagus of many birds that serves as a receptacle for food and for its preliminary maceration
proventriculus the glandular or true stomach of a bird that is situated between the crop and gizzard
gizzard the muscular enlargement of the digestive tract of birds that has usually thick muscular walls and a tough horny lining for grinding the food and when the crop is present follows it and the proventriculus
cloaca the common chamber into which the intestinal and urogenital tracts discharge especially in monotreme mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, and elasmobranch fishes
kidney one of a pair of vertebrate organs situated in the body cavity near the spinal column that excrete waste products of metabolism, in humans are bean-shaped organs lying behind the peritoneum in a mass of fatty tissue
duodenum the first part of the small intestine extending from the pylorus to the jejunum
pharynx the muscular tubular passage of the vertebrate digestive and respiratory tracts extending from the back of the nasal cavity and mouth to the esophagus
liver a large very vascular glandular organ of vertebrates that secretes bile and causes important changes in many of the substances contained in the blood (as by converting sugars into glycogen which it stores up until required and by forming urea)
yolk sac a membranous sac of most vertebrates that encloses the yolk, is attached in most forms through the yolk stalk with the intestinal cavity of the embryo, and is supplied with blood vessels that transport nutritive yolk products to the developing embryo
ileocecal valve the valve formed by two folds of mucous membrane at the opening of the ileum into the large intestine
Created by: rhylie