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URINARY SYSTEM

Fundamentals of Body Structures & Functions

QuestionAnswer
Urinary System The urinary system consists of (2) fist sized organs called kidneys
Consists of means contains
The urinary system consists of (contains) two (2) vessels called ureters.
Vessels are aka ducts or tubes
The urinary system consists of (contains) a reservoir for urine called urinary bladder
Reservoir means storage container.
The urinary system consists of a vessel that transports urine from the urinary bladder to the outside world called the urethra
Kidneys: The paired kidneys are located in the posterior abdominal cavity called the retroperitoneal region aka the flank
Posterior means back or behind
The R kidney is slightly lower than the L kidney due to the large area occupied by the liver
The liver is located in the abdominal RUQ which stands for right upper quadrant.
Kidney cells are called nephrons
Each kidney contains approimately 1 million nephrons (kidney cells)
Blood vessels that transpor (carry) oxygenated blood from the abdominal aorta to the kidneys are called the R renal artery and the L renal artery.
The aorta is the body's largest artery.
Blood vessels that transport deoxygenated blood from the kidneys to the inferior vena cava are called: R renal vein and L renal vein.
The superior + inferior vena cav are the body's largest veins
The amount of blood the kidneys filter every minute is approximately: 1200 mL
The outer covering of each kidney is called the renal capsule.
The outer layer of each kidney is called the: renal cortex
The middle or inner layer of each kidney is called the: renal medulla
Fibrous connective tissue that anchors all muscles and all organs is called fascia
Anchors means binds
The fibrous connective tissue that anchors (binds) each kidney to surrounding structures and the peritoneum is called the: renal fascia
Peritoneum means abdominal wall.
Physiologies (functions) of the kidneys include: 1. Filtering and removing N toxins from the blood called nitrogenous waste.
Toxins are: poisons.
Nitrogenous (N) waste (toxins) includes: a. Urea. b. Uric acid.
Nitrogenous (N) waste (toxins) includes: c. CR which stands for creatinine.
Nitrogenous (N) waste (toxins) includes: d. NH3 which stands for ammonia.
N stands for: nitrogenous (nitrogen)
Physiologies of the kidneys include: 2. Maintaining blood volume (amount) by conserving or eliminating (removing) salts called electrolytes ("lytes")
Conserving means keeping
Electrolytes (lytes) include: a. NA+ which stands for sodium. b. K+ which stands for potassium.
Electrolytes (lytes) include c. CL+ which stands for chloride. d. Ca+ which stands for calcium.
Electrolytes (lytes) include: e. PO4 which stands for phosphate.
Calcium (Ca) and phosphate (PO4) are aka mineral salts.
Electrolytes (lytes) include: f: Mg+ which stands for magnesium. g. SO4 which stands for sulfate.
If your kidneys conserve electrolytes, your body will conserve H2O aka water.
Conserve means keep
Electrolytes (lytes) are known as salts aka (lytes)
Excessive amounts of electrolytes (salts) in the blood especially sodium (Na+) can cause the kidneys to keep excessive fluid called: fluid retention.
Fluid retention can cause: swelling called edema.
fluid retention can cause HTN which stands for hypertension.
Hypertension is aka HBP which stands for high blood pressure.
Retention means keeping
Chronic (persistent) hypertension (HTN) aka high blood pressure (HBP) can cause: a. DM which stands for diabetes mellitus. b. MI which stands for myocardial infarcction aka a heart attack.
Chronic (persistent) hypertension (HTN) aka high blood pressure (HBP) can cause c. CVA which stands for cerebral vascular accident aka a "stroke"
RF which stands for renal failure.
The AHA 's recommended daily allowance of sodium (Na+) is is less than <1500 mg.
Physiologies (functions) of the kidneys include: 3. Maintaining pH balance of the blood by the interaction of carbonic acid (H2CO3) and bicarbonate (HCO3).
pH refers to acidity and alkalinity
Physiologies of the kidneys include: 4. Secretion (production and discharge) of an enzyme to regulate (control) blood pressure (BP) called renin.
Enzymes are chemial catalysts (cause reactions).
Physiologies of the kidneys include: 5. Secretion of the hormone erythropoietin (EPO) which stimulates (cause) erythrocyte (RBC) formation.
Physiologies of the kidneys include: 6. Conversion (changing) of Vitamin D into its active form called calcitrol.
Calcitrol is necessary for absorption of calcium (Ca+).
Ureters: Ureters are vessels that transport (carry) urine from the kidneys to the urinary bladder.
Vessels are aka ducts or tubes.
Each ureter connects to a kidney at a renal pelvis.
ureters are vessels that transport urine from the kidneys to the urinary bladder.
The urinary bladder is a reservoir (storage container) for urine.
Each renal pelvis consists of (contains) funnel shaped structures called: calyces (calyx).
Renal pelves are where the ureters connect to the kidneys.
Ureters are vessels that transport urine from the kidneys to the urinary bladder.
Urine is transported from each renal pelvis to the urinary bladder by wave like muscular contractions called peristalsis.
Renal pelves are where the ureters connect to the kidneys.
The urinary bladder is a reservoir (storage container) for urine.
The opening of the urethra to the outside world is called the urethral os or urethral orifice or urethral meatus.
The length of the female urethra is approximately 1.5 inches.
The female urethral meatus (opening) is located between the clitoris and the vaginal orifice (os).
The length of the male urethra is approximately eight inches.
The male urethral os (opening) is located at the distal portion of the enlarged tip of the penis called the glans penis.
The male urethral os (opening) is located at the distal portion of the enlarged tip of the penis called the glans penis.
The male urethra transports 1. Urine.
The male urethra transports: 2. Spermatozoa (sperm)
The male urethra transports: 3. Semen
Semen is the liquid that: mixes with the spermatozoa (sperm).
The reproductive and urinary systems are referred to as the GU system which stands for genitourinary system
URINARY BLADDER: The urinary bladder is a hollow muscular organ located posterior to (behind) the interpubic joint of the pelvis called: pubic symphisis
The average capacity of the urinary bladder is: 700-800 mL
Capacity means maximum amount.
The urinary bladder is a: reservoir (storage container) for urine.
Stretch receptors (nerves) in the septa of the urinary bladder will transmit (send) nerve impulses (messages) to the brain when the urine level reaches 7-13 ounces equivalent (equal) to: 7-13 ounces (oz) equivalent (equal to) 200-400 mL.
Septa are walls.
After receiving nerve impulses (messages) from the stretch receptors in the urinary bladder septa (walls), the brain will initiate (start) the process of: evacuating (emptying) the urinary bladder called urination aka micturition (micturate) or voiding (void).
Urine remaining in the urinary bladder after voiding is abbreviated PVR which stands for post-void residual.
URINE: Urine is the liquid waste secreted by the: kidneys
Secreted means: produced and discharged (released).
Nitrogenous (N) waste (toxins) includes: a. Urea
Nitrogenous (N) waste (toxins) includes: b. Uric acid.
Nitrogenous (N) waste (toxins) includes: c. CR which stands for creatinine.
Nitrogenous (N) waste (toxins) includes: d. NH3 which stands for ammonia.
N stands for: nitrogenous (nitrogen)
Electrolytes (lytes) include: a. Na+ which stansd for sodium.
Electrolytes (lytes) include: b. K+ which stands for potassium.
Electrolytes (lytes) include: c. Cl+ which stands for chloride.
Electrolytes (lytes) include: d. Ca+ which stands for calcium.
Electrolytes (lytes) include: e. PO4 which stands for phosphate.
Electrolytes (lytes) include: f. Mg+ which stands for magnesium.
Electrolytes (lytes) include: g. SO4 which stands forsulfate.
The process of evacuating (emptying) the urinary bladder is called: urination
Urination is aka micturition (micturate) or voiding (void).
The urinary bladder is a: reservoir (storage container) for urine.
The color of normal urine is: clear or yellow.
Normal urine should not contain: antigens which are pathogens.
Pathogens are: disease creators.
A routine urine test is abbreviated UA which stands for: urinalysis.
Urine is: the liquid waste secreted (produced and discharged) by the kidneys.
The normal hourly secretion (production and discharge) of urine is: 56 mL or approximately 56 mL or approx. two ounces.
Sphincters that control the flow of urine are called: internal urinary sphincter and external urinary sphincter.
A sphincter is a: ring of muscles that opens and closes.
The inability to control the urinary sphincters is called: enuresis or urinary incontinence.
Hematuria means: Blood in the urine.
Hematuria is a sign (Sx) of: trauma (injury) or infection or neoplasm (CA).
Pyuria means: pus in the urine.
Pus primarily consists of (contains): necrotic leukocyte (WBCs).
Pyuria is a sign (Sx) of: infection.
Bacteriuria means: bacteria in the urine.
Bacteriuria is a sign of a UTI which stands for: urinary tract infection.
Glycosuria means: sugar (glucose) in the urine.
Glycosuria means sugar (glucose) in the urine.
Glycosuria is a sign of: DM which stands for diabetes mellitus.
Ketonuria (acetonuria) is a byproduct of: fat metabolism.
Ketonuria (acetonuria) is a sign (Sx) of: DM which stands for diabetes mellitus.
Albuminuria (proteinuria) means: albumin (blood protein) in the urine.
Albuminuria (proteinuria) is a sign (Sx) of PIH which means: pregnancy induced hypertension aka high blood pressure.
Oliguria means: scanty (deficient) urine (production).
Anuria means: no urine (production)
Dysuria means: dificult or painful urination.
Nocturia means: chronic (persistent) night urination.
Polyuria means: excessive urine (production)
The urge (need) to void frequently is called: urinary frequency.
An unusual sudden urge (need) to void is called: urinary urgency.
An involuntary (no control) delay in initiating (starting) micturition is called: urinary hesitancy
An accumulation of urine in the urinary bladder due to the inability to urinate is called: urinary retention.
Involuntary (no control) urination when laughing or coughing is called: stress incontinence.
Involuntary (no control) urination from urinary bladder spasms is abbreviated (OAB) which stands for: overactive bladder aka urge incontinence.
Spasms are: involuntary muscle contractions.
RENAL (KIDNEY) FUNCTION TESTS: Blood tests to detect nitrogenous (N) waste (toxins) include: 1. BUN which stands for blood, urea nitrogen.
Blood tests to detect nitrogenous (N) waste (toxins) include: 2. Cc which stands for creatinine clearance.
Blood tests to detect nitrogenous (N) waste (toxins) include: 3. Cystatin C aka Cys C.
Blood tests to detect nitrogenous (N) waste (toxins) include: 4. GFR which stands for glomerular filtration rate.
An x-ray of the renal pelves after intravenous (IV) injection of a radiopaque (contrast) dye is abbreviated IVP which stands for: intravenous pyelogram
Intravenous pyelogram (IVP) is aka as an IVU which stands for: intravenous urogram.
RENAL (KIDNEY) FAILURE: Renal failure (RF) occurs (happens) when the kidneys are: unable to remove excessive nitrogenous waste and electrolyte (salts)
Azotemia means: blood condition of excessive nitrogenous (N) waste aka uremia
Artificial removal of excessive nitrogenous (N) waste and electrolytes (salts) is called: dialysis
Artificial removal of excessive nitrogenous (N) waste and electrolytes (salts) from the blood is abbreviated HD which stands for hemodialysis.
Hemodialysis (HD) is commonly performed: three (3) times a week for about four(4) hours per treatment (Tx).
Hemodialysis (HD) clients are commonly administered (given): Procrit or EPOGEN aka erythropoietin (EPO).
Artificial removal of excessive nitrogenous (N) waste and electrolytes (salts) from capillaries in the abdominal cavity is abbreviated CAPD which stands for: continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis.
Continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) is commonly performed four times a day for about thirty minutes per treatment.
Dialysis means: artificial removal of excessive nitrogenous (N) waste and electrolytes (salts).
Created by: bterrelonge