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W. Hist - Topic 13

W. Hist - Topic 13 Vocabulary

TermDefinition
anesthetic drug that prevents pain during surgery
enclosure the process of taking over and consolidating land formerly shared by peasant farmers
smelt melt in order to get the pure matter away from its waste matter
capital money or wealth used to invest in business or enterprise
enterprise business organization in such areas as shipping, mining, railroads, or factories
entrepreneur person who assumes financial risk in the hope of making a profit
putting-out system system developed in the 18th century in which tasks were distributed to individuals who completed the work in their own homes; also known as cottage industry
turnpike private road built by entrepreneurs who charged a toll to travelers to use it
urban center large, crowded urban area
urbanization movement of people from rural area to cities
tenement multistory building divided into crowded apartments
labor union organization of workers who bargain for better pay and working conditions
standard of living the level of material goods and services available to people in a society
social mobility the ability to move in social class
free market market regulated by the natural laws of supply and demand
utilitarianism idea that the goal of society should be to bring about the greatest happiness for the greatest number of people
socialism system in which the people as a whole rather than private individuals own all property and operate all businesses
means of production farms, factories, railways, and other large businesses that produce and distribute goods
proletariat working class
communism form of socialism advocated by Karl Marx; According to Marx, class struggle was inevitable and would lead to the creation of a classless society in which all wealth and property would be owned by the community as a whole.
social democracy political ideology in which there is a gradual transition from capitalism into socialism instead of a sudden, violent overthrow of the system
dynamo a machine used to generate electricity
interchangeable parts identical components that can be used in place of one another in manufacturing
assembly line a production method that breaks down a complex job into a series of smaller tasks
stock shares in a company
corporation a business owned by many investors who buy shares of stock and risk only the amount of their investment
cartel a group of companies that join together to control the production and price of a product
germ theory the theory that infectious diseases are caused by certain microbes
urban renewal the process of fixing up the poor areas of a city
mutual-aid society self-help group to aid sick or injured workers
cult of domesticity idealization of women and the home
temperance movement campaign to limit or ban the use of alcoholic beverages
women's suffrage right of women to vote
racism belief that one racial group is superior to another
social gospel movement of the 1800s that urged Christians to do social service
romanticism 19th-century artistic movement that appealed to emotion rather than reason
realism 19th-century artistic movement whose aim was to represent the world as it is
impressionism school of painting of the late 1800s and early 1900s that tried to capture fleeting visual impressions
Created by: brittlloyd