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Charlemagne King of the Franks from 768 to 814; he united much of France, Germany and northern Italy in one Frankish empire; crowned Emperor of the Roman people in 800.
Papal States Territories in central Italy controlled by the pope from 756-1870
Counts Title of nobility; in Charlemagne's empire, chosen officials who ruled parts of the empire in his name
Navigation The guidance of ships from place to place
Sagas Long stories, written in the early 1200's, about great Icelandic heroes and events
Leif Eriksson Norweigen explorer; he led a group of vikings to North America and settled on the eastern shore of modern-day Canada
Knights In medieval Europe, nobles who were members of a lord's heavenly armed cavalry
Fief A grant of land from a lord to a vassal
Vassal In medieval Europe, a person granted land from a lord in return for services
Feudal System A political and social system based on the granting of land in exchange for loyalty, military assistance, and other services.
Fealty The loyalty owed by a vassal to his feudal lord
Manorial System An economic system In the Middle Ages that was built around large estates called manors
Serfs Peasants who were legally bound to their lords land
Alfred the Great King of Wessex from 871 to 899; he defeated Danish invaders and united Anglo Saxon England under his control. He compiled a code of laws and promoted learning
William the Conqueror King of England from 1060 to 1087; he was a powerful French noble who conquered England and brought feudalism to England
Domesday Book The written book of English landowners and their property made by order of William the Conqueror in 1085-1086
Eleanor of Aquitaine Queen of France and England; she was one of the most powerful women in Europe during the Middle Ages
Magna Carta A charter agreed to by king John of England that granted nobles certain rights and restricted the king's power
Parliament The governing body of England
Hugh Capet King of France from 987 to 996; elected by Frankish nobles to succeed King Louis V, he founded the Capetian dynasty, which ruled France for 300 years
Otto the Great King of Germany and Holy Roman Emperor; he defeated the Magyar army, which ended the Magyar raids in the mid-900's
Reconquista The effort of Christian leaders to drive the Muslims out of Spain, occurring between the 11's and 1492
Piety Devotion to one's religion
Pontificate Papal term in office
Pope Gregory VII Roman Catholic pope; his assertion of church power to appoint bishops led him into conflict with Holy Roman Emperor Henry IV, who claimed the powers for himself. Gregory excommunicated Henry, who relented
Henry IV King of Germany from 1056 to 1106 and Holy Roman Emperor from 1056 to 1106; he was excommunicated by Pope Gregory VII over bishop appointments; he acknowledged the pope's authority and was readmitted to the church
Created by: evelynguillen